A Critical Analysis of The National Education Policy 2020 India
- first, provide some background of the NEP 2020, then discuss the significance and relevance of the programme/policy in relation to historical context and theories
- critically analyse and provide insights based on research evidence into how the policy/programme has been implemented and the impact of the policy in the chosen development context
(the paper should include how the national education policy aligns with the Sustainable Development Goal 4(Quality Education) and how it can foster economic development in India)
A Critical Analysis of The National Education Policy 2020 India
The importance of quality educational opportunities cannot be overstated in this era of endless possibilities. From the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, which is currently being implemented in India, the country's economic and social metrics are expected to improve through increasing quality education (Samtani & Bhagavatula, 2022). The National Education Policy 2020 seeks to create a society where all students have equal access to high-quality education, both multidisciplinary and autonomous. The government of India (2020) believes that NEP 2020 can be viewed as a new quality education plan to improve teachers and students in the country. As a result of the adjustments, the quality education policy will be able to carry on in the same way it did before, enhancing its public relevance.
The new policy, NEP 2020, replaced the National Education Policy (NEP), which lasted for 34 years. According to Pandey (2019), the new system will bring roughly ten significant changes. On the 29th of July, 2020, the Union Cabinet approved the National Education Policy 2020. After a long wait of 34 years, this quality educational paradigm was specifically applied all across the country. Before it, the quality educational policy in force since 1986 encountered criticism. For India's quality education system to change by 2040, the National Education Policy 2020 had to be drafted (Samtani & Bhagavatula, 2022). A quality educational system based on the values of Accessibility, Equity, Quality, Affordability, and Accountability was envisioned to guide the nation toward a flourishing knowledge society. It also aimed to quickly increase public spending from 3% to 6% of GDP (Chandra, 2016). It was also a secondary goal of the strategy to enroll all eligible children in school by 2030.
From NEP 2020, the length of compulsory schooling will be increased from six to fourteen to three to eighteen years. As part of this strategy, the government intends to make quality education accessible for students from low-income families, which is a strength. The system can be regarded as beneficial because three years of Anganwadi (preschool) and 12 years of schooling are included in the new system. Anganwadi, preschool quality education, and the class 1 and 2 methods are included in the foundation level (Chandwani, 2022). This is a situation where the only possibilities are multi-level play, interactive school activities, and the most elementary level of literature and numerals. Between the ages of 8 and 11, Stage 1 lasts three years.
Students in Grades 3 through 5 are also included in the NEP level because research showed that in grade 5, after more than four years of schooling, only half of all children could read a grade 2 level text fluently (Mohan et al., 2020). This system's foundational quality education will encourage all fields of study and the activities that go along with them. Cabral & Figueira (2019) consider this the intermediate stage between 11 and 14. Internships allow students to taste what it is like to work in art, science, math, and the humanities, which encourage hands-on learning. This four-year stage is open to students between 14 and 18. Included are students in grades 9 through 12. Multidisciplinary quality education, critical thinking, student choice, and expertise are some of this strategy's equally beneficial components (Mohan et al., 2020). An evaluation card with a 360-degree view of the student's academic progress and future quality educational institutions is expected to be developed. Additionally, a National Curriculum Framework for 2021 and new teacher degree qualifications are expected to be produced.
In the NEP 2020 decision, the original 10+2 structure was replaced with a new 5+3+3+4 design that was more suited to the age-specific demands of the children. To meet the urgent and vital need of achieving Foundational Literacy and Numeracy for all students up to Class 3 by 2025, the National Education Policy 2020 advocated the establishment of a National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy by the Ministry of Human Resources Development (Appleby, 2020). As a result of the implementation of this strategy, schools will implement new and comprehensive curricula that emphasize experiential learning and the development of students' critical thinking skills while simultaneously lowering the quantity of knowledge that children are taught (Government of India, 2020). All students should be taught in their native language, including the eighth grade. Here, there is not any language restraint at work. In the future, secondary school students will be able to take foreign language courses.
Students' critical thinking and conceptual clarity are assessed through regular and formative assessments in the National Education Policy 2020. Students in grades 3, 5, and 8 would be tested by the appropriate officials. However, 2022 grade 10 and 12 exams will go forward as planned. In addition to emphasizing the importance of a comprehensive quality educational system, this new approach also emphasizes the importance of equitable and inclusive quality education (McGee & Keiser, 2021. According to UNICEF India (2022), a comprehensive, multidisciplinary quality education may only be provided at the university level. Teachers will be recruited differently as well, which is a significant change. The new standard practice will promote people based on their abilities rather than their seniority. Academic credits acquired at different colleges and universities will be stored in a single database in an Academic Bank of Credit. These credits can be transferred and counted toward the final degree after the last degree is achieved.
Even though many students are excited about the system's advantages, many are concerned that putting them into practice will be challenging. Rizk & Siam (2021) believe that the Covid 19 outbreak has lowered the standard of quality education. Because of the current online classes and semesters, they feel that even a bad student may acquire a professional degree in business administration. Disqualified or ineligible students take advantage of the current economic circumstances to find work. Although the government may issue various instructions to improve the quality educational system, this point of view suggests that there is still a possibility of academic failure despite these efforts. Many Indians see private and overseas schools as superior quality education to that offered by government-run institutions and other forms of quality educational privatization (Kumar et al., 2020). Because India is still in its early stages of economic development, many middle-class families cannot afford the tuition fees charged by private and international schools. Few quality educational institutions charge rates higher than those set by the government, notwithstanding the school and college tuition cap. This organization highlighted the dangers of working in a school environment.
A child's ability to learn other languages will be hindered if the idea of teaching children in their mother tongue until the fifth grade is implemented is adopted. Too much focus is on an online teaching method that is not easily accessible to a significant proportion of pupils. As a result of NEP 2020s new affiliation structure and intentions to provide college autonomy after 15 years, it is being attacked for potentially privatizing higher quality education (Bhuruk & Sengupta, 2019). Essential principles include identifying and developing each student's unique abilities by third grade, establishing a fundamental foundation level in literature and arithmetic by third grade, flexible learning, and making no borders within departments. Curriculum activities in a multidisciplinary quality education system are given equal weight in an interdisciplinary quality education system (Banerjee et al., 2021). The policy is then divided into four parts: the first deals with school quality education, the second with university quality education, the third with professional instruction and all other key sectors, and the fourth deals, among other things, with the strengthening and financing of various quality educational authorities.
NEP 2020 is expected to bring in a new age of quality educational policy reform, given the existing state of quality education and the ambitions of students. Under the National Education Policy 2020, India has even more room to improve its literacy rate. At-risk students, ranging in age from three to eighteen, will receive NEP 2020 through various programs. On top of all that, it aids students in their quest for an open, unrestricted quality educational system. This strategy will bring about a wide range of reforms for students, and many students eagerly anticipate these changes while others remain skeptical. Providing universal information to Indian students is the policy's most beneficial element for helping pupils succeed in a global marketplace. If students are permitted to work at their own pace, it is less likely that they will drop out of school. There is no such thing as a perfect proposal, no matter how much time and effort is spent making one. But when all factors are considered, this method can bring about the biggest anticipated revolution in the history of quality education. Because of this, people should embrace the new plan with open arms.
Appleby, R. (2020). Human-animal relationships in literacy education. Literacy and Numeracy Studies, 28(1). https://doi.org/10.5130/lns.v28i1.6958
Banerjee, N., Das, A., & Ghosh, S. (2021). National education policy (2020): A critical analysis. Towards Excellence, 406-420. https://doi.org/10.37867/te130334
Bhuruk, H. H., & Sengupta, R. (2019). Prevalence of Undernutrition and effect of NEP on the dietary pattern of college going girls (15- 20 years) in Mumbai. Asian Food Science Journal, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2019/v8i429999
Cabral, B., & Figueira, Á. (2019). Preventing failures by predicting students' grades through an analysis of logged data of online interactions. Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. https://doi.org/10.5220/0008356604910499
Chandra, T. (2016). Literacy in India: The gender and age dimension. Observer Research Foundation, (322). https://orfonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/ORF_IssueBrief_322_Literacy-Gender-Age.pdf
Chandwani, S. (2022, the 19th of April). National education policy 2020: Challenges and criticism. BW Businessworld. https://www.businessworld.in/article/National-Education-Policy-2020-Challenges-And-Criticism/07-08-2020-305937/
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Kumar, K., Prakash, A., & Singh, K. (2020). How national education policy 2020 can be a lodestar to transform future generation in India. Journal of Public Affairs, 21(3). https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2500
McGee, B. H., & Keiser, D. T. (2021). Government officials projects. Differentiated Projects for Gifted Students Grades 3-5, 91-98. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003234166-13
Mohan, A., Kumar, A., & Kumar, S. (2020). National education policy 2020: A step towards technology driven education and self-reliant India. Solid State Technology, 63(6). https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Amrit-Jha/publication/352909776_National_Education_Policy_2020_A_Step_towards_Technology_Driven_Education_and_Self-reliant_India/links/60df67daa6fdccb745ffcaf9/National-Education-Policy-2020-A-Step-towards-Technology-Driven-Education-and-Self-reliant-India.pdf
Pandey, B. (2019). Ensure quality education for all in India: Prerequisite for achieving SDG 4. South Asia Economic and Policy Studies, 165-196. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9091-4_8
Rizk, S., & Siam, B. (2021). Effect of tele-nursing education program on nurses' compliance with standard precautions during COVID- 19 pandemic. Assiut Scientific Nursing Journal, 9(25), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.21608/asnj.2021.73190.1166
Samtani, S., & Bhagavatula, S. (2022). National education policy (NEP) 2020: A necessary investment for India's education imperatives. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4061748
UNICEF India. (2022). Quality education. UNICEF. https://www.unicef.org/india/what-we-do/quality-education
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