Comparison of grain and fruit intake between Beninese women living in Benin and Immigrant women living in the U.S

Posted on: 1st July 2023


Final Evaluation/Write-up- Students will write final evaluation write-up, at least 1500 words (approx. 5 full pages long). The Final Evaluation/Write up is about the connection between your first two Food Journal Parts (sections: diet, physical activity level, dietary recommendations, your personal food intake patterns, possible nutrient Excess or Deficiency, Health Status) and your current food intake context supported by your own DATA. FOLLOW THE MODEL PROVIDED

Your assignment must contain the following parts or sections:

Format: Name/Intro. Nutrition, (May, 2022)

Abstract (50 words)

Introduction (in 200 words at SINGLE SPACE)

- Write this part once the Lit Rev, Methodology & Discussion parts have been written.

Literature Review (using references) (in 400 words at SINGLE SPACE (SP))

Methodology (explain in detail the process of your own experiment) (200 words at SP)

Results/Discussion (using data & figures (2 min) to explain your pre-post) (in 450 words at SP)

Conclusion (in 250 words/ about your personal growth at SP)

References (NO LESS THAN 6, using a proper Bibliography STYLE)

In your LITERATURE REVIEW section please provide a critical written account of the current state of researches on a selected topic. On this section please identify and/or support your research context. Using no less than 5 references you must develop a section that provides general understanding of the specific issue, area of research, or theory under review.


Define your subject and the scope of the review. Search the library catalogue, subject specific databases and other search tools to find sources that are relevant to your topic. Read and evaluate the sources and determine their suitability to the understanding of topic at hand.

In this section you will NOT talk about yourself neither about your experiences nor your data. This section is about general issues that affect people in context (such as Bronx nutrition, food intake in adults who study in the US, university students’ diets, NYC obesity, etc). Consequently, using sources (publications) please describe the relationship of each source to the others that you have selected, to identify and analyse any gaps that support your nutrition situation (athlete, gender, African-American, Caucasian or Latin descendent, international student [African, Russian, etc] adulthood (student with children or single mother), etc)

In your DISCUSSION section please compares your own baseline assessment, your post assessment results & the “USDA choosemyplate” recommendations, as supported DATA. Analyse & discuss the difference of your actual food intake and exercise/physical activity (before and after) and the dietary guideline recommendations of USING your OWN DATA PREPARE TWO FIGURES (tables and/or graphs [pie, bar or line charts]) to demonstrate and discuss:

Your height and weight, calculate BMI, and explain what it means in terms of your personal health, weight history and age.

Discuss: what food you eat in excess? What are the consequences of over-eating these foods? Discuss it in terms of the nutritional value of the food item and the medical risk associated with it. Example: Soda- too much sugar- empty calories- obesity…

Discuss what food you don’t eat but is recommended in Choosemyplate website and what are the consequences of overeating those foods? Discuss it in tern of the nutritional value of the food item and the medical risk associated with it.

E.g.: milk- not enough calcium- not enough Vitamin D- bone density, heart diseases-…

Discuss your intake of water and its health benefits

Discuss your intake of fibre and its health benefits

Discuss your intake of whole fruits, juices, fruit drinks and what’s the benefit or problem

Discuss your intake of vegetables- dark green and orange versus starchy vegetables and legumes and what’s the health benefits

Discus your intake of oils and fried foods

Discus your intake of sweets and junk foods

Theorise what factors have contributed to your poor health and eating behaviour.


This final evaluation/write up paper must reflect about your improvements (or not) your health and eating behaviour and what barriers you have overcome and/or are still facing. You should be able to discuss in detail. Note: For this assignment you must only submit the Final Evaluation Write up and not the Baseline or Post-Assessment forms.

In your CONCLUSION (in 250 words) please summarise your improvements (if any), and your personal growth (reflecting about what did you learn, your changes (if any) supported by your data previously presented on the experiment).

Cover, Titles, Subtitles, Figures (tables and/or charts or graphs), Footnotes and/or, REFERENCES are not part of the total words (1500) required.

P.S: Some reviews are attached to the assignment to serve as examples as well as my food intake forms

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This paper aims to explore the relationship between water intake and constipation. I will discuss the importance of water in the body and the role of fiber in preventing constipation. I will also share my personal experience of changing my diet and lifestyle to improve my overall health.

The body’s cells, tissues, and organs require water to function properly. Therefore, water is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Water helps carry nutrients and oxygen to cells, remove waste from the body, and protect organs and tissues. The recommended daily water intake is eight glasses per day, but this may vary depending on a person’s activity level, age, and health.

Fiber is also important for preventing constipation. Fiber adds bulk to the stool and helps it move through the digestive system more easily. The recommended daily fiber intake is 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men. Foods high in fiber include fruits, whole grains, and beans.

I began to experience constipation when I changed my diet and lifestyle. I had been eating many processed foods and not getting enough exercise. I decided to make some changes to improve my overall health. I started drinking more water and eating more fiber-rich foods. I also began to exercise regularly. These changes helped to relieve my constipation and improve my overall health.

In conclusion, water and fiber are both important for preventing constipation. Changing my diet and lifestyle helped relieve my constipation and improve my overall health. Therefore, more people should be aware of water and fiber in their diet.

Dietary Intake Assessment


Dietary choices can have long-term consequences for human health. Diet plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, treating and preventing chronic diseases, and promoting injury recovery. Nutrition specialists create diet guidelines for different ages (Mertens et al., 2019). Individual nutritional requirements differ based on age, height, muscle mass, the occurrence of chronic or acute diseases, food assimilation and consumption, transportation, energy needs for everyday activities, and lifestyles. Dietary intake and nutritional status are assessed by keeping track of the amounts and types of foods taken daily and the nutrition and wellness determinants that affect eating habits (Mertens et al., 2019). The amount of weight you have plays a significant role in establishing your nutritional requirements and the changes you’ll need to make to your diet.

 Dietary consumption and nutrition status are assessed to establish a person’s nutritional requirements and the best approach to accomplish them. Dietary intake sets an individual’s general food information and relates it to dietary needs for their age group, such as persons over 55. The most challenging part is getting people to stick to a custom-made diet and meal plan (Mertens et al., 2019). Following the measurement of food intake and current nutritional status, the next step is to urge senior adults to follow the dietary plan that has been prescribed for them, whether it is an individualized or institutional plan.

Literature Review

The study found that diet quality, food preferences, and dietary intake are influenced by social circumstances and age, marital status, educational level, and income. The adoption of a culturally appropriate model was published online on November 9, 2004, by Delores James. The study aimed to see how culture influenced the dietary choices and diet of a select minority of African Americans in north-central Florida. African American males and females were divided into six focus groups. The data was analyzed using the PEN-3 model. This theoretical model focuses on culture as the primary reason for healthy behavior and the fundamental idea for health promotion and disease prevention initiatives (Leng et al., 2017). There was a general understanding that ‘eating healthily’ meant relinquishing some of their culture and heritage and adapting to the current society (Leng et al., 2017). Dietary healthy and sustainable practices may significantly solve the competing conflicts between health and environmental sustainability as global food systems change. Therefore, it is critical to understand current dietary behaviors and the factors that influence them to encourage such dietary practices (Leng et al., 2017). Since defining or quantifying optimal health is challenging, communities’ efforts to discover poor nutritional status have traditionally focused on dietary deficiencies.

 Nutritional deficiency shows a pattern that begins with inadequate intake or use of one or more nutrients, advancing to biochemical abnormalities, unusual growth, irregular mass, and, finally, full-blown deficiency (Leng et al., 2017). Undernutrition isn’t the only sign of a nutritional problem. High intake or insufficient expenditure of food energy and excessive intake of individual nutrients can result in acute intoxication or chronic disease. As food systems shift globally, healthy and ecologically sustainable eating patterns and behaviors are emphasized as a potential option to solve simultaneously environmental and health sustainability challenges.

While there is no reliable system model of good health and environmentally sustainable dietary patterns, such nutritional habits consist of a primarily plant-based diet with limited animal-based products, such as fish and poultry.


These are the two most common types of methods. The first strategy involves keeping track of food intake in families and groups based on food purchases and discarding estimates. The second method is on individual dietary intake. It is established by keeping track of or recalling all foods ingested. I used the recall method to conduct my assessment. It is a common way to get current dietary intake data from people. It is predicted to reliably remember food consumption over a specific period preceding the survey. The ‘24-hour recall’ method is standard. This method is easy to use because one can recall the food consumed in the last 24 hours.

Comparison Between Female’s Fiber and Water Intake: Females From Benin and Females From U.S.

Females from Benin tend to consume more dietary fiber since their meals are more likely to be unprocessed. American females consume less dietary fiber since they consume more processed food from fast food stores. Females from Benin consume more water than American females because they consume more traditional foods, taking more water. American females take less water because they mostly order soft drinks alongside their fast food orders(Martini et al., 2021). Females from America may consume less water due to their tight schedules from office jobs, making them forget to take water. Some Benin females can consume more water since they mostly work in the informal sector, which is more tedious and require constant hydration.

Cultural And Local Factors Affecting Fiber and Water Intake for Females From America and Those From Benin

Most African nations experience hot climates, making them develop a habit of taking more water. America mostly gets a cooler climate which results in low water intake. Most American females take processed food that is not rich in fiber than African meals that contain more fibers (Martini et al., 2021). American females are more likely to take processed juices, while females from Benin prefer eating fresh fruit, making them take more fiber.



After anthropometric testing, I was 5’02” feet tall, weighed 170 pounds, and had a BMI of 31. I mostly ate eggs for breakfast in my everyday diet. Eggs are high in protein. The cholesterol content of one big egg is 186 mg. While 300 mg of cholesterol is optimal for one day, each person requires more. Therefore, only one egg is safe to eat on any given day. Elevated blood cholesterol concentrations can harm your heart. Heart disease risk will rise if left untreated (Okano et al., 2021). Constipation is another negative effect of consuming too many eggs. Flatulence, abdominal cramps, nausea, and headaches indicate egg intolerance.

Using the two food charts I created, I compared the amount of food I consumed daily. I found that my overall consumption of vegetables and dairy products was higher than my total energy intake. As a result, I’d cut down on my fluid and meat consumption. Later, I discovered that I had a deficiency in vegetables and dairy and an excess of cereals, which corresponded with the energy consumption patterns of the ordinary American. Inadequate dairy consumption leads to calcium and vitamin D deficiency, damaging the skeletal muscles (Okano et al., 2021). In addition, excess carbohydrate consumption causes weight gain and cardiovascular disease.

During my assessment, I discovered that I was not drinking enough water, as advised by the USDA dietary guidelines. Water is necessary for optimum health in the body. Every cell, tissue, and organ in the human body requires water. Urination, sweating, and bowel movements are all methods for excreting waste (Okano et al., 2021). Water maintains a consistent body temperature and Protects delicate tissues by lubricating and cushioning joints. My diet was well-balanced in terms of fiber consumption. Constipation can be avoided or alleviated by eating adequate fiber, allowing waste to pass through the body more easily (Okano et al., 2021). It also promotes the growth of healthy gut flora. Therefore, I ensured that I included vegetables and fruits in my diet. A diet rich in vegetables and fruits lowers blood pressure, lowers the risk of heart attack and stroke, reduces the risk of some forms of cancer, decreases the chance of vision and digestive problems, and positively impacts blood sugar, which can help regulate appetite. Non-starchy veggies and fruits such as apples, pears, and green leafy vegetables may help weight loss. In addition, I wanted to make sure that my meals contained oils and fried foods. Oils and fats supply calories and essential fats and assist in digesting fat-soluble vitamin supplements, including A, D, E, and K. Plant-based vegetable oils are recognized to have a slew of advantages. Vegetable oil has many other benefits besides improving the texture and flavor of food.

  Regular diets should incorporate oils. It also enhances cardiovascular health, eliminates splinters, and aids vitamin absorption. Sweets and junk food were not part of my diet. Regularly eating junk food aggravates obesity and chronic ailments like heart disease, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic drinks, fatty liver disease, and many cancers. (Okano,, 2021). Bad dietary choices have contributed to my poor food and lifestyle habits. The environment and culture in which I live influence my poor decisions. Food selections have been influenced by the amount of time spent preparing them. Understanding the significance of dietary change at a community level is essential to understanding the factors that drive food selection. Hunger is the real incentive for consuming, but we also eat to address physiological and nutritional needs.


I became more conscious of my food after using the meal plan journal. I’ve discovered that watching what I eat can help me maintain a healthy weight. I also found that physical activity is critical for overall health. I think I’ve adopted healthy eating habits. I’ve made some changes to the foods that I haven’t been able to control. I’ve also mentioned some essential foods that I’ve never consumed. I’ve also made a concerted effort to consume adequate amounts of water. I now understand how many calories one should consume each day and how too many calories are harmful to one’s health. People will be more cautious about their eating habits when taught about calorie consumption. I’m finally brave enough to abandon my unhealthy lifestyle in favor of a healthy one (More, 2021). The amount of energy consumed and expended should be equal. Total fat should not transcend 30% of total caloric consumption to avoid unhealthily gaining weight.


Leng, G., Adan, R., Belot, M., Brunstrom, J. M., de Graaf, K., Dickson, S. L., Hare, T., Maier, S., Menzies, J., Preissl, H., Reisch, L. A., Rogers, P. J., & Smeets, P. (2017). The determinants of food choice. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 76(3), 316–327.

Mertens, E., Kuijsten, A., Dofková, M., Mistura, L., D'Addezio, L., Turrini, A., Dubuisson, C., Favret, S., Havard, S., Trolle, E., Van't Veer, P., & Geleijnse, J. M. (2019). Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries. European journal of nutrition, 58(4), 1475–1493.

More, J. A., Lanigan, J., & Emmett, P. (2021). The development of food portion sizes suitable for 4-18-year-old children used in a theoretical meal plan meeting energy and nutrient requirements. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics: the official journal of the British Dietetic Association, 34(3), 534–549.

Okano, Y., Okamoto, M., Yazaki, M., Inui, A., Ohura, T., Murayama, K., Watanabe, Y., Tokuhara, D., & Takeshima, Y. (2021). Analysis of daily energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake in citrin-deficient patients: Towards prevention of adult-onset type II citrullinemia. Molecular genetics and metabolism, 133(1), 63–70.

Martini, D., Tucci, M., Bradfield, J., Di Giorgio, A., Marino, M., Del Bo, C., ... & Riso, P. (2021). Principles of sustainable healthy diets in worldwide dietary guidelines: efforts so far and future perspectives. Nutrients, 13(6), 1827.

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