Literature Review

Posted on: 10th May 2023


Assignment - Capstone Project Proposal Literature Review

 Find 5 peer reviewed articles about your capstone

project. Write а literature review.

Please follow the assignment rubric

• А literature review is not an annotated ЬiЫiography in

which you summarize briefty each article that you

have reviewed.

• While а summary of what you have read is contained

within the literature review, it goes well beyond

merely summarizing professional literature.

• lt focuses оп а speci(lc topic of interest and includes

your criticaf anafysis of the relationship among

different works, and relating this research to your


• ln this case, your work will Ье your capstone project.

• lt may Ье written as а stand-alone paper or to provide

а theoretical framework and rationale for а research

study (such as а thesis or dissertation).

• Your literature review will Ье written as а standalone


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Literature Review

Expired drugs have caused numerous deaths in the United States. The lack of a reliable and effective system to dispense drugs and various medications aggravates the problem. Researchers in the medical and pharmaceutical fields in the United States have undertaken research studies touching on the problem of expired medication in clinics and hospitals, as highlighted by Tariq et al. (2018). Further, various solutions have been proposed in the quest to manage the relevant risks to patients. A literature review to support the project proposal on the implementation of a new system to prevent the use of expired drugs by patients is crucial.

Methods of Searching

The approach applied in gathering the resources for the literature review involved the use of manual and electronic tools. Indeed, access to the manual resources in the main library at the university contributed to the sources of data for the project. Further, Google Search was instrumental in finding the appropriate electronic resources, especially articles on Google Scholar. In addition, online research databases of high repute, such as NCBI (the National Center for Biotechnology Information), played a strategic role in gathering the requisite resources for the project (Alnahas et al., 2020). The various methods of searching for the project’s resources—both electronic and manual—boosted the outcome of the literature review through the collection of peer-reviewed articles published in top-ranking journals.

Project Proposal

PICOT Question: Would developing a medication (dispensing) system in a clinic lead to a decrease in expired medication (drugs) use on patients?

The proposal for implementation of a robust system that will facilitate the prevention of the administration and prescription of expired medications to patients in American hospitals is crucial for the healthcare field in the United States. The challenges associated with the use of expired drugs by patients has been highlighted by Alnahas et al. (2020) in the quest to draw the attention of the concerned government agencies and the public. The proposal for the innovative system that will be key in curbing the menace of expired medicines in health facilities is timely and well-crafted to address the medical challenge (Tariq et al., 2018). A high number of patients under medical care have lost their lives due to the administration of expired drugs. Essentially, the prescription of these drugs results from errors within the healthcare system that monitors the use of drugs by patients (Alnahas et al., 2020). Further, professional errors by caregivers and nurses have aggravated the problem, resulting in delayed recovery periods and even fatalities. Therefore, the proposed topic is the prospects for an innovative system that prevents the use of expired medications by patients within a healthcare facility setting.

Review of the Literature

An analysis of the risks associated with the use of expired drugs by patients exposes the ever-growing problem facing health facilities in the United States. The results of a cross-sectional study by Ebrahim et al. (2019) conducted across four major health facilities in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia, revealed that one of the primary factors that led to the wastage of drugs through expiration was the lack of a robust system to monitor the efficiency and stock-management policy of the medications. The findings in the comprehensive study are in line with the study by Gidey et al. (2020). The study observes that the high percentage of expired and unused medications in health centers was due to the lack of reliable drug management systems. Hence, the need for an innovative drug management system to monitor the expiry of drugs is urgent.

An investigation of the extent of the problem in healthcare facilities contributes positively to the relevance and purpose of the project. Thus, a review of the perspectives captured in the studies by Gidey et al. (2020) and Ebrahim et al. (2019) is critical. The studies indicate that the implementation of a new and innovative system would be extremely helpful to healthcare facilities in the United States. Indeed, facilities constantly strive to enhance the standards and quality of patient care (Gidey et al., 2020). Professionals in the medical field, including nurses and caregivers, need to be educated on proper drug management policies that would be fundamental in reducing cases of drug expiration and wastage as observed by Raja et al. (2018).

Further, a crucial finding in the study by Tariq et al. (2018) communicates the appropriateness of a novel drug management system. Tariq et al. (2018) note that many fatalities, about 7,000 to 9,000, have occurred in the United States. Essentially, this is due to the lack of a reliable system to manage the dispensing and administration of drugs in health centers. Therefore, Alnahas et al. (2020) assert that a proper and robust system for managing drugs would play a significant role in controlling the challenge. Raja et al. (2018) concur that the potential risks to patients within American healthcare facilities would be mitigated by the implementation of a reputable drug management system.

A review of the potential of the innovative system in tackling the problem of expired drugs in American healthcare units is paramount. Gidey et al. (2020) and Ebrahim et al. (2019) demonstrate the gravity of the challenge. According to Ebrahim et al. (2019), the fact that many pharmaceutical companies are constantly adding new drug categories on the market means that the risk of expired drugs continues to increase. The fact that expired medications can result in death reverses the goals of the American healthcare system. Certainly, the scenario illustrates that the lack of a comprehensive system of drug management reduces the gains made in the advancement of the standards of care for patients in the USA, as indicated in the study by Tariq et al. (2018).

On the other hand, Gidey et al. (2020) advise that it is crucial for hospitals to have strong drug management systems. Such systems can detect the various levels and categorizations of medications. At the same time, Alnahas et al. (2020) add that the new systems should have the capacity to determine with accuracy the shelf lives of the medications. This capability will be helpful in controlling the risk expired drugs pose to patients. Further, Raja et al. (2018) note that an integrated system supported by information technology elements would prevent the exposure of patients to expired medications. Indeed, Tariq et al. (2018) assert that the new system would properly guide nurses and caregivers on the appropriate doses of unexpired medication.


The American healthcare system faces an ever-growing challenge of medication-dispensing errors related to the use of expired drugs. Tariq et al. (2018) assert that about 7,000 to 9,000 persons die in the United States due to medication errors, including the use of expired drugs. As such, the use of expired medication in American hospitals lowers the quality of patient care (Alnahas et al., 2020). Therefore, there is a fundamental need to look for innovative, medically and professionally acceptable ways to address the challenge (Alnahas et al., 2020). The recovery journey for a patient who has been subjected to expired medication is usually challenging and may result in fatality.


The literature review has investigated the prospects for a new system aimed at preventing the administration of expired medication to patients in American hospitals. Indeed, Tariq et al. (2018) note that the project is part of a strategy to enhance the quality of patient care in American healthcare facilities. Professionals in the medical field should be educated on proper drug management policies. Hence, the program would be fundamental in reducing cases of drug expiration and wastage, as observed by Raja et al. (2018). The proposed system can detect the various levels and categorizations of medications with precision (Alnahas et al., 2020).



Alnahas, F., Yeboah, P., Fliedel, L., Abdin, A. Y., & Alhareth, K. (2020). Expired medication: Societal, regulatory and ethical aspects of a wasted opportunity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(3), 787.

Ebrahim, A. J., Teni, F. S., & Yimenu, D. K. (2019). Unused and expired medications: Are they a threat? A facility-based cross-sectional study. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health10, 2150132719847857.

Gidey, M. T., Birhanu, A. H., Tsadik, A. G., Welie, A. G., & Assefa, B. T. (2020). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of unused and expired medication disposal among patients visiting Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. BioMed Research International, 2020.

Raja, S., Mohapatra, S., Kalaiselvi, A., & Rani, R. J. (2018). Awareness and disposal practices of unused and expired medication among health care professionals and students in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal11(4), 2073.

Tariq, R. A., Vashisht, R., Sinha, A., & Scherbak, Y. (2018). Medication dispensing errors and prevention. NCBI.

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