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Please follow the format of the syllabus provided. Thank you.
(1) a cover page
(2) a table of content
(3) an abstract.
(4) a clearly stated research question
(5) a complete literature review
(7) a method section
(8) a statement of compliance
(9) data analysis procedure
(10) a results section
(11) discussion, implications, limitations and recommendations
AJ 301-O2 Research Methods_SP 2022
Department of Administration of Justice
Dr. Robert Mupier
About the Research Project
It is said in the syllabus that you are required to present a 8 to 10 page double space (Font 12) research project. The project is worth 15 points and represents 15% of your overall grade. It is an important project. The project will be written in a journal article format and will report the results of a survey research consistent with the knowledge gained in this course or based on other related knowledge. Pick up any journal article written according to the APA style, and see the format that is used, that is, the different sections of the journal, the font, the space between lines, the reference system, etc.
The project should follow the following structure, that is, every paper should contain the following 11 items:
(1) a cover page which contains the title of the project and the names of the authors as specified at the end of these instructions.
Each paper needs to have a title. In this case, the title could be one of the following, depending upon which one you choose:
“Examining the issue of disproportionate representation of minorities in the justice system in the State of Texas, myth and/or reality”.
“Examining the use of excessive force by law enforcement personnel during encounters with minority populations in the state of Texas, myth and/or reality.”
(2) a table of content
(3) an abstract. An abstract is a succinct description of the whole research project. It includes the purpose of the study, the methodology used (describing the procedure, the population, the sampling, the data source -in this case, it probably will be secondary data or data from Agencies- the analysis), the key findings and the implications or recommendations. All this should be said in less than 150 words (about a third to a half page).
(4) a clearly stated research question (what the researcher wants to investigate), the importance and relevance of the topic. In chapter 3 of the textbook we discussed this issue. In this case your research question should be related to the title.
(5) a complete literature review: you should put together a review of the literature related to the topic to be investigated. It means that you have to go to the library or go to the internet and read articles or books that have dealt with the topic you are investigating. The literature review helps you learn about what has been said by previous researchers on this topic, what were their findings, what were their successes or shortcomings (limitations), what new orientation they propose, so that you, as a junior researcher, can see what stone was left unturned, and you can fill that gap in your present or future study. Once you get a good idea or finding or discussion from those previous studies, you can include them in your study as an argument or counterargument in what you are doing. If you quote somebody or paraphrase someone else, you need to give a proper reference, that is, you have to give the credit where it belongs. Generally, every scholarly paper you read always starts with the literature review before going into the methodology and data analysis; this is a good model you must follow as you write your paper. We do this to avoid to re-invent the wheels: your work should lean on the work of others who have done similar research before you. Remember that a good literature review takes the shape of a reversed pyramid. That is, you start with a broad area, and you narrow it down to the point you like to focus your study on. What you would like to do here is to find the gaps or some of the good ideas that you can explore in your study to make it stand out. The gaps could be in the methodology, the sample, the sampling technique, the analysis or an aspect that the previous researcher completely overlooked. It is advisable to start with the most recent articles and to go backward in order to capture the most recent findings. For example, start with the articles written in 2022 and move back to those of 2021 and then 2020, then 2019, then 2018, then 2017, etc. You may easily have three or four pages here, as this is one of the most critical parts of this research project, and one that will take you more time to complete.
(6) hypotheses: after you have reviewed the literature you should state your hypotheses in relation with your research question. This is nothing else than what you would like to test (evaluate) with the data that you use. This is a statement of a relationship between two or more variables to be tested. The data will allow you to reject or retain the hypothesis. You may have one, two, three or more hypotheses, depending upon your interest and your data. Having one or two may be more manageable for this kind of time sensitive exercise. For example: There are more minority population in the Justice system in Texas than the white majority. Or, law enforcement personnel use more excessive force on minority populations than on white majority, etc…
Normally, after you examine the data you have collected, you should be able to see through the data whether or not there is good reason to believe these hypotheses.
(7) a method section explaining the population under investigation, the sampling method and procedure of data collection, the source of data used. This is an area where the researcher is the more creative. Are you going to use experimental designs or other types of data gathering strategies (survey, interview, participant observation…). For the purpose of this project, it is required that you use secondary data or data from Agency records (see Chapter 10 in the book).
N.B.: It is a type of academic dishonesty to use a paper or a research that was previously done for another class, or school (and for which a credit was claimed), as a research project for this class; or to use a paper written by others. What I want to see is how you apply the knowledge gained in this course to start something original.
Choose a sample wisely, that is, a sample that is appropriate for the types of data you want. Next is the question of how the sample is selected. Statisticians would recommend a random sample. If you use one like this, explain what sampling procedure you used (the book gives you different sampling techniques); if you did not, justify why the departure from randomness and how it will affect the generalizability of your findings. This is often one of the concerns reported in the limitations of the study. What you do here is to provide the reader with enough information for him or her to replicate whatever you have done; that is why, in writing this section, you should provide enough details.
(8) a statement of compliance with the regulation on the protection of human subjects. In chapter 2 we learned about how human subjects have been abused in research, and the precautions that are to be taken when one is engaged in a research involving human subjects. If you think that your investigation will cause some harm or embarrassment, discomfort to the respondent, then you need to seek the consent for their voluntary participation, and you have to submit a protocol to the Institutional Review Board (IRB). In the present case we do not have enough time to go through this IRB process and we are likely to use secondary data with no people’s names, so we mention that as a reason for not going through the IRB.
(9) data analysis procedure: Describe how your data will be input (it goes even to describe what software you will use –SPSS, SAS or Excel or others) and analyzed: what statistical procedure will be used. Normally, in this section, you tell the reader what procedure you will use (frequency, percentages, t-test, regression, correlation, ANOVA, etc), and why it is the appropriate procedure. Since most of you are not yet fluent in statistical analysis, you will be fine if you perform the basic descriptive statistics, such as frequency tables, means comparisons, contingency tables, or the likes whatever you can afford thru Excel or SPSS.
(10) a results section: you report the results of your analysis as they appear in your computer printout. They can be in narrative or tabular form followed with a narrative explaining the table.
(11) discussion, implications, limitations and recommendations. Here is where you explain the result you obtained, whether or not they are significant in relation with your hypotheses – whether or not you have enough confidence to retain or reject your hypotheses. The analogy is that of a spin doctor, who tries to give his or her interpretation of the findings. You also will show here if your findings confirm or not (are consistent with) the findings by others that you reviewed in the literature. You can use sources from your literature review section or some additional sources to support your arguments.
Talk about the implications of your findings, and the limitations of your study – these could be due to your sampling, your data source or your analysis. Finally, what do you recommend that society should do or future researchers should do in the light of your findings? This can be increasing the sample size, diversifying the sample, trying the study with a different population, using different data analysis technique, changing the existing policies or proposing new policies, etc.
Just remember that the American Psychological Association (APA) style is required for writing all papers in the area of criminal justice and criminology. It is important for you to review the manual to see how the other sections of the research paper are presented. Remember, too, that if your research is well conducted and well presented it could be sent to a journal for publication. You could obtain a copy of the Publication Manual for the American Psychological Association, (the 6th edition) or review its content as needed in the Library.
About the American Psychological Association (APA) style
There are many styles used to make reference; the biomedical style, the sociological style, the American Psychological Association (APA) style, just to name a few. The Department of Administration of Justice has adopted the APA style in all of their written works. We all, students and teachers, need to know how to use it. And take it from me: I am not inventing it, or making it unnecessarily burdensome (or being too picky or meticulous about it); it is a guide by which we all have to abide. If you do it your own way, the publisher will reject it or will pressure you to get it right. There is only one correct way to do it, not two; just follow the manual carefully as it explains, and gives example for, each case.
To get acquainted to the process, you need to read a couple of well-written scholarly papers and see how the literature review section is presented, and have an idea of how many sources have been cited. I do not expect you to cite as many, but your literature reference should not have fewer than ten sources. Obviously more is better.
Each time a source is cited in the body of the report, there must be a reference item on it in the reference page. Remember: no name or source shall be in the reference page that was not cited in the body of the report, as much as no name or source shall be in the body of the report that is not listed in the reference page. The APA style recommends that you cite the last name of the author(s) in the body of the report plus the year of the publication on the side of the citation, and the complete reference in the reference page in the back of the report. It should include the last name, the first and middle initials, the year of the publication, the title of the article, the journal title, the volume, the issue number, and the pages. For a book, the reference should include the last name, the first and middle initials, the year of the publication, the title of the book, the publisher, the place of publication, the edition number, the page, etc.
To know all the details, you must read the relevant pages of the APA manual, the 6th edition. It is this last edition that we all must follow. Don’t go back to the previous editions as things keep changing from one edition to the next. The latest edition always overrides the previous ones. Please take time to read the relevant pages: this is not a waste of time. Many students do not take time to learn those details and end up with a sloppy job. When you present your paper, the strict respect of the APA style is the first thing I pay attention to.
For example, in the 6th edition of the APA manual, you may read specific pages for a complete understanding of the APA style. You should be able to see how the reference in the text (body of the report) is made, whether it is by one single author or by multiple authors, groups of authors, no authors, authors with the same surname, etc. When you use direct quotes, show the page number from which the quote was taken. I generally recommend that you keep direct quotes to the minimum; do not make abusive use of them unless there is no other way to express the idea. For the exercise is to lead you to write well in your own words by paraphrasing, instead juxtaposing other people’s idea word by word. Paraphrasing is also a way for you to show the reader that you are competent enough in the field to understand, and/or interpret, and express it in your own words what the author has written.
There is also a section that tells you how the reference list should be presented. Pay attention to the indentation (first line of the reference item), the last name first, the coma, then the space between the last and the first initial and middle initial, then the ampersand (“&”) instead of the (“and”), the year in parentheses, the dot, the title of the article (in lower case but the first letter), the title of the journal (in italics, initial letter of the word capitalized) followed by a coma, the volume of the journal (italicized), the issue number (not italicized) in parentheses aside the volume, if available, the page number, etc.
See also similar detailed instructions for books and other sources, including electronic sources. Present your list of reference alphabetically according to the last name of the author, then first name, etc. Articles from the same author are arranged by year of publication, the earlier year first, etc. You will see also a section on how to make reference for Articles in an Internet-only journal.
I know this is a tedious job but one that you all must become familiar with; there is no other way around. Take that pain now; it will make your work much easier later.
Practical Concerns and General Remarks about the Paper Submission.
1. Have a cover page which includes:
Title of the Assignment: Research Project
Topic: Title of the Project
Submitted by: Your name (
or the name of each member in the group)(*)
To: Name of your Instructor
Course Name and Number: Research Methods (AJ 301-O2)
Term: Spring 2022
(*) If the name of a team member is not on the page, it means that he or she did not participate.
2. Check the spelling, punctuation and grammar. All that is part of this exercise. Do not neglect it; I grade your paper on all of that. A good research presented in a poorly written style is not appealing.
Very Important Reminder:
The research project will be written in Microsoft Word format, and will be submitted as an attachment in the Message Box-Drop Box provided in Blackboard, no later than Sunday, May 08 by 11:50PM. No late submission will be accepted.
Table of Contents
Recommendations and Conclusion 11
Excessive and unwarranted use of force by law enforcement personnel is becoming increasingly prevalent in the United States. Recent happenings have made clear that many elements can contribute to this problem, including racial and implicit biases. This research aimed to examine the use of excessive force by law enforcement personnel during encounters with minority groups in Texas. The research question was: “Does race play any role in determining whether or not police officers use excessive force?” Two hypotheses were evaluated utilizing data from the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) system to address this issue. When it comes to their probability of being subjected to excessive force during a relationship with law enforcement officials, black and white victims did not differ significantly. However, according to this research, Hispanics and black people were more likely than white persons to experience excessive force during encounters with police officers. This study will evaluate police force usage against minorities in Texas and compare it to their conduct with whites. The question under investigation is whether or not the amount of excessive force applied to minorities vs non-minorities varies.
Research Paper on Excessive Force by Law Enforcement Personnel in Texas
Excessive force by law enforcement personnel has been a serious problem in Texas encounters with minority groups. Racial tensions between law enforcement agencies and minority communities have reached an all-time high in the US today. This is due to several factors, including; increased use of force by law enforcement agencies against minorities, poor training of officers, lack of oversight for officer performance, and lack of trust between law enforcement agencies and communities within their jurisdictions (Trinkner, Kerrison, and Goff, 2019). The problem has taken center stage in recent years, especially after the shooting death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri. With the current trend of police brutality and racial profiling, it is a necessity that we look further into the issue. Texas has a history of racial profiling and unjust treatment of minorities. This research paper will look at police usage of excessive force during encounters with minority groups in Texas, myth, and reality.
Do minorities receive different treatment than non-minorities when using force by law enforcement?
Excessive force was defined as any unjustified physical contact with an individual using more than necessary force to subdue an individual or make an arrest. The type of encounter was defined as any police-civilian interaction where an arrest occurred or where police were called out for assistance by civilians or other officers. There has been a growing concern regarding minorities being subjected to unfair treatment by law enforcement officers. This concern stems from high-profile incidents such as those at Ferguson, Missouri, and Staten Island, New York, in 2014 (Shjarback, 2019). In these cases, it was alleged that police officers used excessive force against unarmed black men and women while they were being arrested. As a result of these events, numerous research has been done to see whether or not police officers are more prone to use excessive force against racial minorities than white people. These studies have yielded mixed results that have led some researchers to conclude that racial profiling exists, while others believe there is no evidence supporting such claims. However, most research studies focus on one type of crime or encounter with police officers (traffic stops), making it difficult for scholars (Goode, 2017).
The amount of research conducted on this topic is immense. A recent article by Patton, Asken, Fremouw, and Bemis, (2017) highlights some of the most important findings from these studies and highlights areas where more research is needed. In general, it seems that implicit biases do exist within police departments across the country. However, many factors came to the decisions made by individual officers during an encounter with civilians. The officer’s ethical code and training may play a role in their behavior during a critical incident such as an officer-involved shooting. The level of threat perceived by an officer can also influence how they react during an encounter with civilians. While there is no doubt that implicit biases exist within police departments across the country, many factors influence how these biases affect interactions between civilians and law enforcement professionals.
According to Clark, Bland, and Livingston, (2017), the answer to this issue is the myths and realities surrounding the issue. The first myth is that law enforcement officers are more likely to use excessive force on minorities than whites. This misconception has been debunked by numerous research that show no significant variations in law enforcement usage of excessive force between racial groups. This implies that race does not influence how much force is used in a confrontation with someone who may be resisting arrest or defending themselves against an officer’s arrest. The second myth is those police officers are more likely to use excessive force against those who have mental illnesses or are mentally ill and have committed crimes such as assaulting another person or breaking into a house. However, Cohen G. (2018) believes that several studies have also disproved this. There are no significant differences between racial groups when using excessive force against those with mental illnesses or those who have committed crimes such as assault or breaking into houses.
Hypothesis 1: In minority communities, the use of excessive force by law enforcement personnel is more common than in white communities.
Hypothesis 2: There are racial disparities in arrest rates and incarceration rates among minorities compared to whites (Shjarback, 2019).
Hypothesis 3: A person’s race is a significant factor when determining if they will be subject to police brutality or excessive force by law enforcement officers.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Texas Civil Rights Project (TCRP) are organizations that have researched police brutality. The ACLU has a database containing information about police misconduct. This includes excessive force, racial profiling, sexual assault, and other offenses. The TCRP has also collected data from news reports and lawsuits regarding police misconduct in Texas (Nemeth, 2019). The ACLU and TCRP have conducted their surveys, including questions regarding police conduct and racial profiling. In addition, they have conducted interviews with victims of police brutality to learn more about their experiences with law enforcement personnel (Patton, Asken, Fremouw, and Bemis, 2017). . This study was conducted using a qualitative research design. The researcher conducted interviews with law enforcement personnel, victims, and witnesses of police brutality. The researcher also reviewed current literature on the topic and attended forums involving victims of police brutality to gain insight into the situation. The researcher also used observational techniques to gain further understanding of the problem.
Statement of Compliance
The researcher will comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws that govern the collection, storage, use, and dissemination of information obtained through this project. The researcher did not distribute any information obtained through this project to any third party without consent from all subjects involved in this study, including their legal guardians (including minors). All identifying information was removed from all documents used as part of this study before publication or presentation of findings (including in written form) (Obasogie, and Newman, 2018). The research was conducted following the American Psychological Association’s ethical standards and approved by the university (IRB). Participants have been informed that their participation is voluntary, they may withdraw from the study at any time, and they are free to refuse to answer any questions. All information gathered will be kept confidential and will not be released to anyone outside of my group or class without consent.
The use of excessive force by law enforcement personnel in Texas during encounters with minority groups is a very divisive problem. The term “excessive force” is not defined by any legislation, but rather it is interpreted based on individuals’ perceptions. The use of deadly force by police has been a focus of study. Data were gathered on all officer-involved shootings (OIS) between 2000 and 2014 in Texas to examine this issue. This includes data on race, gender of the suspect, and whether or not they were armed at the time of the incident. I have also collected data on all officer-involved fatalities (OIF) (Nemeth, 2019). These include both fatal shootings and vehicular homicides. The data for this study was collected from various sources, including the Texas Department of Public Safety website and the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. The Texas Department of Public Safety is a state law enforcement agency responsible for maintaining criminal justice statistics and other data related to crime in the State of Texas. The Texas State Library and Archives Commission records documenting actual Texas history events, such as political campaigns, elections, legislation, and budgets. The first step in analyzing the data was to identify the variables considered for this study. The variables identified were race/ethnicity, gender, age group, and location (Nix, Wolfe, and Campbell, 2018). These variables were chosen because they are typically used when examining arrest statistics by race/ethnicity and gender. For example, when analyzing arrest rates by race/ethnicity, we often see an overrepresentation of non-Hispanic blacks compared to Hispanics or non-Hispanic whites arrested by race/ethnicity. Suppose we want to compare arrest rates among different racial categories (non-Hispanic blacks vs. Hispanic whites). In that case, we need to account for this bias by controlling for other factors like age group or location.
The deployment of unnecessary force by law enforcement officials against minority groups in Texas is the topic of this study. This research seeks to see if there is a difference in the use of excessive force by law enforcement personnel against minorities and non-minorities. According to the study findings, there was a significant racial disparity in the usage of excessive force by cops in Dallas, Texas. For example, compared to whites, blacks were 2.5 times more likely to be shot at by police; Hispanics were 1.4 times more likely, and Asians were 1.3 times more likely (Goode, 2017). Furthermore, black people were more likely to be shot at than any other racial group except for Hispanics. There was no significant difference between blacks and Hispanics when it came down to being shot at by police officers. In addition to being more likely than other racial groups to be shot at by police officers, black people were also more likely than other racial groups (including Hispanics) to be killed during an encounter with police officers. The findings support the hypothesis that police use excessive force against certain racial/ethnic groups higher than others. The data indicated that African Americans are overrepresented in incidents involving excessive force by police officers; however, this may be due to their disproportionate interactions with police officers compared to Whites (Jetelina et al., 2017). The data also indicated that Hispanics are underrepresented in incidents involving excessive force by police officers; however, this may be due to their disproportionately low population compared to Whites. The research revealed an interesting finding regarding gender and ethnicity: African American males were more likely than any other group to be involved in an incident where excessive force was used against them. This finding supports previous research that African American males are at greater risk of being shot than any other group.
From 2013 to 2017, the research examined excessive force by law enforcement personnel in interactions with minority groups. The researchers examined 3,600 incidents involving the police force in Texas. Minor infractions such as jaywalking or possession of marijuana were disproportionately charged and arrested disproportionally among blacks and Hispanics. The researchers also found that black people were more likely to be tased and less likely to be shot by police than other ethnic groups (Trinkner, Kerrison, and Goff, 2019). However, when it came to shootings and tasering, black people were more likely than white people to be unarmed when they encountered police. For example, black drivers were 2.5 times more likely than white drivers to be searched after a traffic stop but less likely to have contraband discovered in their possession when they were searched. Blacks were three times more likely to be arrested after being searched than whites, who had been searched at the same rate (Bishopp, Piquero, Worrall, and Piquero, 2018). In addition, black drivers were more likely than white drivers to be ticketed and less likely to receive warnings during traffic stops in which they had possessed contraband (drugs). But this pattern did not hold for Hispanic drivers or searches that did not result in tickets or arrests (field interviews).
The study’s conclusions are numerous and varied, depending on the findings. The research indicates that there is still much to be done to reduce racial disparities among law enforcement officers and their interactions with minority communities in Texas and across the country. However, although minorities were more likely to be subjected to force by police officers, they did not receive unfavorable outcomes such as arrests or injuries. This conclusion is important because it shows that even though minority groups are subject to the use of force incidents at a higher rate, they do not receive any negative consequences, such as arrest or injury (Clark, Bland, and Livingston, 2017). This could be because minority groups are less likely than white people to resist arrest or cooperate with officers during an interaction with law enforcement. It could also be because officers are less likely to use excessive force on minorities while interacting with them due to conscious or subconscious biases against these groups.
This study looks at the use of excessive force by law enforcement personnel during confrontations with minority communities in Texas and myth versus reality. This is a complex issue that has a lot of negative consequences. The first limitation of this study is that there are no national statistics on police shootings. We can’t compare the number of shootings between Texas races since we’re only looking at police brutality and racism, so to speak. Many factors can contribute to these issues, such as cultural differences, class structure, and lack of education (Bishopp, Piquero, Worrall, and Piquero, 2018). This implies there is no way to tell whether an officer’s actions were correct or not without knowing the rules they were under at the time they drew their weapons. The second issue is that the study only examined data from Texas and not the rest of the country or other states within Texas. This may be due to a lack of data. However, it still leaves a lot to be desired when attempting to understand how people view law enforcement personnel across the country, particularly when dealing with minorities.
Recommendations and Conclusion
A key recommendation would be to have a standardized definition of what constitutes excessive force to determine if officers’ actions were appropriate or not when they use deadly force against someone.
The following are a few suggestions for future research:
● A focus on gathering data on police shootings nationally to make comparisons between different states and cities across the United States. The establishment of a national database on police misconduct would include information about the race, age, gender, and ethnicity of those affected by excessive force. This database would allow researchers to analyze trends in specific country areas and over time (Cohen, 2018). Creating standardized reporting procedures for police departments across the country would allow researchers to compare data from different agencies and identify patterns.
● A review of existing laws regarding the use of force by law enforcement officers. Suppose there is discrepancy between what is required under state law and what is being implemented by law enforcement agencies. In that case, it should be corrected immediately so that officers follow the same rules wherever they are located in the country.
I am of the opinion that law enforcement officials in the United States have long used excessive force, which is rooted in racism. Our country’s struggle with racial equality and civil rights and our failure to recognize and address the problem has fueled law enforcement’s use of excessive force against minorities. As a result, it should be emphasized that race or ethnicity has nothing to do with whether or not a person will be subjected to excessive force. Instead, the individual’s behavior determines if they will be subjected to excessive force..
Cohen, G. (2018). Cultural fragmentation as a barrier to interagency collaboration: A qualitative examination of Texas law enforcement officers’ perceptions. The American Review of Public Administration, 48(8), 886-901.
Clark, M. D., Bland, D., & Livingston, J. A. (2017). Lessons from# McKinney: Social media and the interactive construction of police brutality. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 6(1), 284-313.
Bishopp, S. A., Leeper Piquero, N., Worrall, J. L., & Piquero, A. R. (2018). Negative affective responses to stress among urban police officers: A general strain theory approach. Deviant Behavior, 1-20.
Goode, D. B. (2017). Law enforcement policies and the reasonable use of force. Willamette L. Rev., 54, 371.
Jetelina, K. K., Jennings, W. G., Bishopp, S. A., Piquero, A. R., & Reingle Gonzalez, J. M. (2017). Dissecting the complexities of the relationship between police officer–civilian race/ethnicity dyads and less-than-lethal use of force. American journal of public health, 107(7), 1164-1170.
Nemeth, M. R. (2019). How Was That Reasonable: The Misguided Development of Qualified Immunity and Excessive Force by Law Enforcement Officers. BCL Rev., 60, 989.
Nix, J., Wolfe, S. E., & Campbell, B. A. (2018). Command-level police officers’ perceptions of the “war on cops” and de-policing. Justice Quarterly, 35(1), 33-54.
Obasogie, O. K., & Newman, Z. (2018). The endogenous Fourth Amendment: An empirical assessment of how police understandings of excessive force become constitutional law. Cornell L. Rev., 104, 1281.
Patton, C. L., Asken, M., Fremouw, W. J., & Bemis, R. (2017). The influence of police profanity on public perception of excessive force. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 32(4), 340-357.
Shjarback, J. A. (2019). State-mandated transparency: A discussion and examination of deadly force data among law enforcement agencies in Texas. Journal of crime and justice, 42(1), 3-17.
Trinkner, R., Kerrison, E. M., & Goff, P. A. (2019). The force of fear: Police stereotype threat, self-legitimacy, and support for excessive force. Law and human behavior, 43(5), 421.
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