United States Supreme Court Cases
1.Access the United States Supreme Court cases listed below:
-Roper v. Simmons
-Eddings v. Oklahoma
-In re Gault
-McKeiver v. Pennsylvania
-Kent v. United States
-Stanford v. Kentucky
-Breed v. Jones
-In re Winship
2.Identify relevant information pertaining to the holding of the case (vote and decision), and reasons for the Court to hear the case.
3.Interpret the holding of each case and indicate how that ruling will impact the juvenile justice system in the years to come
4.Organize all of the cases and case information in chronological order to create a timeline (year of the decision included), with supporting information listed for each case. This timeline should be contained to one page, and should include non-technical language. A broad audience should be able to read the information contained in the timeline and interpret your findings.
United States Supreme Court Cases
In re Gault
Gerard Gault and Ronald Lewis were the two young men involved in this case. On June 8, 1964, they were condemned to prison for having an inappropriate phone conversation in which they called their derogatory neighbor terms. Gault's arresting officer did not inform Gault's parents of his imprisonment, and he did not leave a notice at their home. Neither Gault's mother nor anybody else was in attendance at the June 9 informal hearing; as a result, no documents or transcripts of the proceedings exist.
Kent v. United States
An older woman in her 30s was raped, and police could obtain fingerprints that matched those of 16-year-old Morris Kent during their investigation. When Kent was barely 14 years old in 1966, he was arrested for stealing other people's purses and wallets. An adult court found that the gravity of the offense and Kent's prior experience with the legal system warranted his trial as an adult rather than a juvenile.
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania
Since his arrest in 1968 at the age of sixteen, Joseph McKeiver has maintained his innocence in the face of numerous criminal allegations. Edward Terry, then 15, was charged with conspiracy after being arrested for assault and violence against a police officer the following year. Jury trials for minors are unlawful, according to Pennsylvania's Supreme Court. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court heard appeals based on alleged constitutional violations before being dismissed from consideration.
In re Winship
Sam Winship, 12 in 1970, was a juvenile delinquent. On appeal, the judge mandated that Sam complete at least 18 months of training at a vocational school before being released from prison. However, according to a Court of Appeals rule, Sam could not be designated a delinquent until the money stolen from Winship's business could be proven beyond a reasonable doubt. The United States Supreme Court granted an appeal of the decision in this case.
Breed v. Jones
In a court of law for adults, a 17-year-old kid was convicted of robbery on February 8, 1971. The Juvenile Court held a hearing on March 15 and decided that Jones was not appropriate for the court's care, treatment, and training programs; thus, he was ordered to be prosecuted in the adult court system. The writ of habeas corpus was denied, contrary to Jones' contention that he had been put through double jeopardy. An appeals process followed a trial, and Jones was sentenced to prison for the second time for first-degree robbery.
Roper v. Simmons
One of the Supreme Court's most significant decisions was that the death sentence for crimes committed by minors was unconstitutional in Roper v. Simmons, 1978. Twenty-five states' statutes were overturned in the Supreme Court's decision to reverse a decision that supported the execution of juvenile offenders aged 16 and older. As a result, there would have been no more than five of these inmates on death row in any other state.
Eddings v. Oklahoma
A 16-year-old Eddings was at the heart of the debate in the Eddings v. Oklahoma 1982 case. When he opened fire on a police officer approaching him for a traffic stop, he was condemned to serve a sentence of life in prison. Even though he was a minor at the offense, the authorities treated him as an adult. As a result of the eighth and fourteenth amendment rights, his defense team contended that the death penalty was unconstitutional.
Stanford v. Kentucky
Kevin Stanford was found guilty of murder, sodomy, robbery, and receiving stolen property by a jury in Kentucky, despite being barely 17 years old in 1989. Stanford was sentenced to death in California because of a Class A felony or a capital offense he committed while still a minor. Stanford did not argue that juvenile offenders should face the death penalty because it would violate their constitutional entitlement to serve a sentence of life imprisonment without parole.
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