Assignment 2: Qualitative Journal Article Review

Posted on: 29th May 2023

Question

Summary

• Value: 15% of the final grade.

• Due Date: on or before 11:55 p.m. AT on Sunday of Unit 4.

Learning Objectives

• Critically review and evaluate qualitative research.

• Search for and explore peer-reviewed counselling qualitative research articles; synthesize and critique selected studies’ findings.

• Demonstrate elementary research design skills.

• Proficiently apply and discuss course concepts.

Purpose

The purpose of an article review is to communicate the main points of a study and to discuss the implications, strengths and weaknesses of the design. The review is not meant to re-iterate the details of the study nor to paraphrase each point; instead, it should summarize and discuss the study. These assignments are an opportunity for you to demonstrate your understanding of the course concepts. For this paper, write in the third person; the idea is always to remain neutral, objective, and personally uninvolved.

Instructions

Complete a Journal Article Review (JAR2) using this JAR2 Template. The article you choose to review, will, ideally, contribute to the selection and development of your final paper topic. Locate ONE qualitative journal article related to counselling from scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles (published within the last 10 years) available online. You may search for your article via the Yorkville Library or through other online scholarly search engines or databases, such as Google Scholar, ERIC, BASE, PsyInfo, PubMed Health.

For JAR2, the research design must be qualitative and utilize a formal qualitative methodology (e.g., grounded theory, phenomenological, ethnographic). Qualitative research design is inductive in its reasoning. It is a systematic subjective approach used to describe life experiences and to give these life experiences meaning. The goals for a qualitative researcher are to gain insight and to explore the depth, richness, and complexity inherent in the phenomenon under study. The final report for a qualitative study is a narrative report with contextual description & direct quotations from research participants. A study that simply asks open-ended questions and reports the results will not meet the requirements for this assignment. For JAR2, the research method, data analysis, and results should be clearly discussed. 

For the qualitative JAR2 assignment, you may use the first person voice (e.g, I, me, my). APA Style supports the use of the first person voice where it's appropriate (APA, 2020, p. 120).

Note: Meta-Analysis, Systematic Review, Pilot studies, Mixed methods, and Single-subject case studies are not permitted.

Structure

• Required components: Title page, Abstract, and Reference page

• Length of Assignment: The text body of paper (i.e., excluding title page, abstract, and references) should consist of approximately 750 words (3-4 pages), double-spaced typed pages, Times New Roman font size: 12).

• Format: Please, format your assignment in Word (files with extension .doc or .docx).

• References: at least one (qualitative) scholarly peer-reviewed journal article related to your topic in counselling.

Considerations

The qualitative article selected for review should align with your Final Paper Topic Declaration.

Resources

Any sources used to support your written narrative should be cited using correct APA format. Although Wikipedia can be a useful starting place to gather very general information no Wikipedia references will be accepted as scholarly citations.

Use the Yorkville University Library and the EBSCO tool for academic search. It is important to select credible sources for assignments. 

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Solution

Sexual Offending Behaviors: Qualitative Journal Article Review

Yoder, J., & Ruch, D. (2015). A qualitative investigation of treatment components for families of youth who have been sexually offended. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 22(2), 192-205. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552600.2015.1107141

Statement of Problem

The main problem being addressed includes the sexual offending behaviors among the youth and the possibilities of recidivism. The main research question is how the various components of family treatments contribute to reducing sexually offending behavior of the youths within the family structure. In addition, the role of the clinicians as a conduit and facilitator of the family treatment and the family of the offender s is also investigated (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). In this case, the authors argue that most current studies focus on the concepts of family treatment for sexual offending behaviors from a broad perspective of reducing the stigma of youths and delineating them from the family, which can result in continuity of the sexual offenses. However, focusing on the specific components of the family treatments, such as reducing the family environments, internal factors, and context that contribute to such sexual offenses through successful engagement can substantially reduce the rate of recidivism and integrate the youth offenders back into the community (Yoder & Ruch, 2015).

Literature Review

The literature review is not based on a specific theory but on some traditional treatment practices for youths who have sexually offending behavior. In this case, the authors first present studies that entail traditional approaches for treating sexually abusive behaviors for youths like adults are treated for sex crimes (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). One of the main ways to solve sexually harmful behaviors among youths includes relapse prevention and cognitive behavioral therapy, a philosophical theory used by many clinicians to solve behavioral problems (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). In addition, some interventions include education about the sexual abuse cycle, patterns of sexually offensive behavior, and how to control sexual impulses, interests, arousal, and fantasies (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). Also, the education can help teach the youth how to overcome masturbation behavior and suppress other conditioning behavior that makes an individual vulnerable to committing sexual offenses.

However, the other indicates a problem utilizing such traditional approaches in dealing with the problem because of the evolving maturity of adolescents and the world. Furthermore, there is little empirical evidence and support for the effectiveness of the traditional approach in the context of the evolving context and development of adolescents today who have access to technology. Therefore, the authors suggest the need for modified intervention strategies. One of the main theoretical approaches suggested includes family treatments which can holistically address the youth problems (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). This is based on the collaborative effort from the youth interaction environment, family systems, and social engagements within the environment (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). The second theoretical approach suggests multisystemic therapy, a social-ecological theoretical model (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). This includes an integration of the strengths of the individual, community-based resources, and family in addressing the sexual offending behavior. Other suggestions also include the utilization of the systems theory as a way to enhance behavioral changes in adolescents (Yoder & Ruch, 2015).

Hypotheses To Be Tested

The central hypothesis tested is family treatment approaches can contribute to short and long-term treatment of sexually offending behavior among youths.

Method

A primary qualitative method uses systematic interviews with the selected participants. In this case, the sample population identified was composed of a multidisciplinary team involved in treating youth sexual offenders (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). The aim was to collect their information and understand the best approaches to family treatment. The development of the interview questions and the systematic interview was based on four focus groups.

Participants

The four focus groups included in the study comprised 11 participants (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). Eight of them were treatment providers, while three were probation officers having experience ranging from two to 25 years and an average of 8.1 years (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). Based on the sex, 64% were female, and the rest were male (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). Based on ethnicity, a majority was drawn from the white that consisting 90% of the participants (Yoder & Ruch, 2015).

Materials

Through the semi structured interview, the exclusion criteria enhanced the validity and reliability of the test. This is because the participants' experience was critical, especially in dealing directly with family treatments for more than 20 years (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). In this case, the rigorous and systematic semi structured interview is reliable as the same results would be obtained if the study was to be repeated and same conditions given whereby, utilizing experienced participants that have worked in family treatment of young sexual offenders can enhance replication of similar goals. The focus on family treatment goals and components also provides an accurate representation of the data of young sexual offenders which helps meet the validity criteria.

Procedure

First, the focus groups were identified and helped guide the interview questions' development. Next, the participants were contacted via phone or email through snowballing sampling techniques. Finally, each participant was interviewed, and the impact and components of family treatments for young sexual offenders were recorded (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). The interview was a semi-structured type to allow for the views of the treatment professionals and some closed questions.

Statistics

To improve the labeling and identification of concepts in the focus groups throughout the data review, an open cycle coding procedure was applied. Two research assistants helped transcribe the data using the ATLAS Ti 7 software using a grounded theory approach (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). Using a coding schema, an analytical coding trajectory was established.

Results

From the findings, the results indicated that there were three main goals which included informing, restructuring, and uniting. The information aspect entails educating and identifying appropriate resources to help the sexual offender from a family perspective (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). The restructuring focuses on the behavioral changes in the youth sexual offender (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). Lastly, uniting entails the integration of the offender into society and family without the stigma that can lead to recidivism (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). In implementing these goals of family treatments, there were five main components identified through the interviews. The components of family treatment include therapeutic relationships, sexual offender-specific treatments, communication, problem-solving, and working through the pain through continuous engagement (Yoder & Ruch, 2015).

Implications

Implications for Counselors, Clients, and Counselling

For the counselors, the findings show the critical supportive role of the professionals as a facilitator between the offender and the family institutions. This includes identifying issues within the family that could lead to behavioral change and prevent recidivism and how they can be addressed within the family structure (Hartnett et al., 2016). The aim is not only to transform the youth's sexual offending behavior into a person who can control themselves but also prevent stigma within the family and community (Joyal et al., 2021). For the clients, in this case, the youth sex offenders, the aim is to transform the behavior, educate them through sexual treatment procedures to learn how to control sexual impulses and engage in appropriate behavior, as well as ensure that the behavior does not recur or there is no relapse. In this case, counseling plays a significant role (Ryan & Otonichar, 2016). However, the cognitive behavioral therapy approach alone is not sufficient. There is also a need to incorporate the developmental changes and evolving environments in which the current youth lives to effectively address the factors contributing to sexual offenses.

Discussion

Summary

According to the results, one of the most successful interventions for sexual offenses is family treatment with the multidisciplinary approach's inclusion to prevent recidivism and address teens' changing nature and growth (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). To this end, the qualitative study supports the hypothesis and goes into detail to discuss how each component and goal of the family treatment program should be implemented.

Interpretation

Qualitative studies, primarily through systematic interviews, can include a bias that can skew the results, especially from the person being interviewed. However, the majority of the participants in this study consistently agreed that for interventions to be successful, family treatment must incorporate the roles of other multidisciplinary members such as the probation and treatment officers (Yoder & Ruch, 2015). The facilitation of family support in the youngsters' process of changing their behavior is also necessary. Overall, the study follows ethical considerations in collecting the data, such as permission from the standards body and consent of the participants. Besides, the length of the participants' experience, especially in dealing with family-oriented treatments and young sexual offenders, is critical in making the study meet the reliability and validation aspects.

For Further Study

In the future, there is a need to establish more empirical evidence on how to overcome stigma, especially among sexual offenders. Besides, there is also the growth of unrestricted access to the internet among young teenagers and children, exposing them to sexual offending behaviors that can land them in trouble. Therefore, there is a need to conduct further studies to determine how best to control online behavior not only by family aspect but also other stakeholders in the industry, such as the sites verifying the true identity and age of the user.

References

Hartnett, D., Carr, A., Hamilton, E., & O'Reilly, G. (2016). The Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavioral and Substance Misuse Problems: A Meta-Analysis. Family Process, 56(3), 607-619. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12256

Joyal, C., Carpentier, J., & Martin, C. (2016). Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: The usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest. Child Abuse &Amp; Neglect, 54, 10-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.01.006

Ryan, E., & Otonichar, J. (2016). Juvenile Sex Offenders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(7). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-016-0706-1

Yoder, J., & Ruch, D. (2015). A qualitative investigation of treatment components for families of youth who have been sexually offended. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 22(2), 192-205. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552600.2015.1107141

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