Posted on: 29th May 2023




In this assignment, you will answer a series of questions rather than write a unified essay. CITE ALL INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT ORIGINATE WITH YOU.

These questions ask you to do the following:

● Describe an appropriately narrowed, current (within the last 12-18 months), and unresolved issue relevant to your field of study. Explain what caused this controversial issue to arise and why people disagree about how it should be resolved. This is a continuation of the research you did in Project 2. Use that work to form the basis for this assignment!

● Identify an audience for the issue you chose who disagrees, in part or in total, and analyze the audience’s position. The audience must have decision-making authority or considerable influence over the outcome of the issue. 

● Explain your position on that issue

● Analyze that audience’s biases and potential counterarguments

● Analyze the Advocacy Letter genre for the final research project essay

Complete the end-page reflection

MAKE SURE YOU DISAGREE WITH THE POSITION TAKEN BY YOUR AUDIENCE. Therefore, you must conduct sufficient research about your audience.


● Download and open the “Issue, Audience, and Genre Analysis Worksheet” document included in the assignment on Blackboard.

● Enter your responses to the questions directly on the worksheet.

● NOTE that you are not writing a formal essay; you are answering a series of questions only. 

● You should have two well-developed paragraphs, each with cited evidence, per question.

The bulk of your grade will be based on the substance and critical analyses in your responses.

 Save your file using the following file naming protocol: LateNameAnalysis.

 SOURCES: Your understanding of the issue, the audience, and your own stance will be more impressive if you use the most credible evidence you can find to support and illustrate your claims. At least one of your sources must come from a scholarly journal. The bulk of your evidence should reflect an in-depth use of the library databases.

 Make sure you effectively and ethically integrate your sources and cite them accurately.

Do not cite popular sources, to include Wikipedia,, TIME Magazine, USA Today, etc. Audiences who have decision-making authority over an issue will expect highly reputable sources as evidence.

 DOCUMENTATION: Consider this an academic essay. Include a references (APA) page or works cited (MLA) page at the end of this document. Edit and proofread your work.


By the end of this process, you should be able to do the following:

●  To research and analyze an active conversation about an issue relevant to your field of study

● To develop a research question about that issue

● To identify and analyze an audience who has decision-making authority over that issue.

● Analyze that audience and discover how that audience will affect your research and writing.

● Analyze the advocacy letter genre you will use to write to that audience to learn how it will shape your final argument.

● Find, evaluate, integrate, and cite highly credible sources 

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Enter your responses to the follow questions directly on this Word document. Save the document using the following file name: LastNameAnalysis

Some questions will require more content to answer than others, but you should aim for two substantive paragraphs for each question. Make sure you cite your sources, and cite only sources your audience would respect. Your evidence should include information from at least one scholarly source.


NAME OF YOUR DISCIPLINE: Information technology

YOUR refined and narrowed RESEARCH QUESTION: Which is the most efficient and safest method of data recovery and technique of data loss prevention in cloud computing? 

1. THE ISSUE: Describe the appropriately narrowed, current, and unresolved issue relevant to your field of study. Explain what caused this controversial issue to arise and why people disagree about how it should be resolved. Make sure it is either about to happen or is just getting underway, which means it have arisen as a controversy within the last 12-18 months.

Be specific. Do not choose overly broad issues that have been debated for a long time, such as “legalizing marijuana.” Think much more narrowly, such as a specific piece of legislation at the federal or state level that has not yet been voted upon (e.g., how a specific state considering legalizing marijuana plans to negotiate the federal prohibition against its use). Use credible evidence to indicate the source of your information, integrate it effectively and ethically, and cite it accurately. 

The main issue identified is data loss in cloud computing. One of the most recent technologies is cloud technology and massive data storage in online platforms. Many companies rely on big data analytics to collect information from potential customers stored in the cloud technology databases. However, some companies have not installed appropriate safety frameworks to ensure the data is safe. This has made cloud technology a target for many cyber criminals using the data for other crimes such as identity theft or blackmailing big organizations (Kumar & Saha, 2019). In the end, the damage control could cost the company millions in paying the criminals and repairing the system. Some small companies may not have the capacity, and such data breaches and losses have continued to be a major problem. Some people have proposed strong legislation targeting companies using cloud technology to solve the problem and ensure security. However, some claim that such measures through legislation are not enough as it only places the liability on the companies and agencies. Instead, getting strong data management systems that are integrated could be a more secure solution. This causes the differences in the most effective strategies for preventing data loss and enhancing data recovery. In the recent past, there have been debates as to whether even the companies using cloud computing should allow enforcement agencies to access the data and if such access could increase the risk of data loss by the company, among other ethical concerns. 

2. THE AUDIENCE: Identify and describe a primary audience who has direct influence over the issue you researched and analyzed in your annotated bibliography. Explain the audience’s vested interest (decision-making authority) in the issue and describe any current events or trends that may be currently affecting your audience’s interests. Use credible evidence to indicate the source of your information, integrate it effectively and ethically, and cite it accurately.

 The audience with a decision-making authority focused on is the US government. In 2018, the CLOUD (Clarifying Lawful Overseas use of Data) Act was passed in the US and became law. The regulation indicates that the law enforcement agencies have a right to access data from cloud computing technology for crime prevention for US citizens, US companies, and US-hosted corporations irrespective of the jurisdiction of the data’s location. The US is especially vested in the issue because some of the frameworks have been difficult to access the information the government works on due to the data security firewall installed by some companies. Moreover, while requesting such data, most companies had a problem giving the government access to such information because of the ethical concerns and terms and conditions given to the clients. Besides, some companies fear letting government agencies access the cloud computing databases could lead to massive data losses and weaknesses targeted by other agencies, such as cybercriminals (Kumar & Saha, 2019).

 3. AUDIENCE’S POSITION (the audience’s argument): What position does the audience have on the issue you chose? Note that audiences do not always spell out their positions. You will need to conduct research in newspapers, trade publications, and journals to collect the necessary information about your audience’s position. Use credible evidence to indicate the source of your information, integrate it effectively and ethically, and cite it accurately.

 The US government holds that crime is now increasing from the physical involvement of the offender in the cyber security platforms. In this case, many cyber criminals and hackers target critical information from databases, including government secrets which become national security (Kumar & Saha, 2019). Considering the increasing crimes on online platforms, the US government feels that getting access to some of the databases could help identify the crime trails that could lead to the detection of crime in time and solving it. Therefore, if companies that have an affiliation of conducting business under the regulations of the united states have such information, then providing such access could help not only in preventing cybercrimes but also ensure that there are minimal data breaches hence data loss prevention and quick data recovery in case an incident has occurred.

 4. AUDIENCE BIAS: What values and beliefs does your audience have that would create biases against your position? Remember that everyone involved in a controversy will have biases, so having them is not a sign of weakness. It just means you would need to consider those biases when writing to the audience. Use credible evidence to indicate the source of your information, integrate it effectively and ethically, and cite it accurately.

 The US government is neutral and sometimes biased toward providing consumer protections for US citizens. As a global security major partner, the US government also feels that having such access to some of the most protected frameworks in cloud technology used by some companies could help in international crime surveillance and prevent some of the terrorist attacks not only on the US and US citizens but also other areas around the world. Such intelligence could also help prevent data breaches; from this point of view, the main element is to protect the consumers. In addition, the government portrays it to the public as its protector, which is the main aspect. However, this is biased as it does not address two main issues. First, there have been claims from the data management companies that government data security protocols are not strong enough to prevent data loss because some rogue officers could get hold of sensitive data and leak it for their gain. Besides, some of the authorized persons could be targeted, and another cybercriminal using their credentials to access the systems, and such data could lead to data loss (Kumar & Saha, 2019). If data recovery becomes difficult and is in large volume, it could put the company in losses and loss of public trust while the government may not lose so much. The second issue is the ethical concerns of sharing data without the user’s approval, as outlined in most of the privacy and confidentiality contractual agreements by users. Therefore, giving the government such access could force the company to be in an ethical dilemma and risk losing data and a difficult


 Provide reasons for your position. Use credible evidence to indicate the source of your information, integrate it effectively and ethically, and cite it accurately. Use the evidence to defend your position.

Companies should install strong frameworks and integrated data security management systems with strong firewalls to prevent data breaches and loss while enhancing recovery. For instance, strong security protocols in the cloud databases and computing technology should secure the data to enhance its security and minimal losses, if any. However, access to the data should be highly restricted, especially to the user only and the authorized individuals in the companies only. A secondary backup database is also critical to help in recovery in case of a technical hitch within the company (Franklin & Ravi, 2018). In this case, the government should not directly access the company’s details (Alghofaili et al., 2021). However, suppose there is reason to believe there is a crime. In that case, such data can be provided by the company while hiding people’s personal information rather than allowing the security agency access, which could be a weakness. Therefore, the government should rather enhance the regulations around the responsibility of the companies and authorized individuals in guarding the data of users and that of the government by using the cloud technology as a way of consumer protection and recommending some of the safest protocols through evidence-based practices.

6. CONCESSION and COUNTERARGUMENT: Describe elements of your audience’s position that you sympathize with (concession) to acknowledge the counterarguments to your stance. Next, refute what you can about the audience’s position with an evidence-based counterargument of your own. Use credible evidence to indicate the source of your information, integrate it effectively and ethically, and cite it accurately. 

The government has a critical role in consumer protection and crime prevention as part of the cyber security issues. To this extent, getting access to some of the data could be critical in preventing serious terrorist attacks and cyber security crimes (Aljumah & Ahanger, 2020). However, it does not address how such access could be an extension of the security frameworks and address the weaknesses of leakage from the government’s end as a user. Furthermore, due to the dilemma, the government fails to address the ethical concerns of being given such access. Besides, such access does not directly address the government’s responsibility in data loss or recovery efforts, which makes it a weak position and approach compared to creating consumer protection legislation other than demanding access.

 7. EVIDENCE: What types of evidence would your audience expect to see in order to be persuaded by your argument? Most audiences who hold decision-making authority over an issue are sophisticated and knowledgeable. Think carefully about what it would take to persuade your audience to change its stance or at least agree to a compromise on the issue. Use credible evidence to indicate the source of your information, integrate it effectively and ethically, and cite it accurately. 

The evidence would include past incidences where access by the government led to leakages that affected not only the data security but also the reputation and losses to the company involved. In addition, some data losses and recovery problems include cases from government organizations, which could show how governments are, especially in some data security management (Arcserve, 2022).

 8. GENRE:  Find two examples of an advocacy letter that includes cited sources other than the one we went over in class. (Provide links to these examples or submit them along with your completed worksheet).

 Describe how the authors establish their ethos or credibility to speak about the issue. Why would the target audience be interested in these authors? Next, describe the structure and format of the advocacy letter. How do that structure and format shape what the authors say and how they say it?

Advocacy Letter 1

Advocacy Letter 2 


1. Describe any challenges you encountered in identifying a current and unresolved issue relevant to your field. What types of questions (inquiry) about the topic you chose did you use to identify the issue?

When researching the topic, there were no major issues. However, when it comes to finding advocacy letters, they were difficult to find.

2. Describe the process you used to identify an audience with a vested interest in this issue and with whom you disagree.

The audience was selected by researching some of the decision making authority in the US on data security then the CLOUD Act came up. This informed of the US’s position on access to data which could be a weakness of data losses.

3. Identify one thing you learned about your audience that will have the greatest impact on how you shape your argument.

I learned about the ethical dilemma between the US government’s security role and requiring having access to data in solving crime as well as the company’s responsibility of fulfilling confidentiality and privacy ethical concerns of the data.

Failure to include the End-Page Reflection results in an automatic 10-point deduction in your essay.

Make sure you include a works cited or reference page. 


This assignment, developed by the George Mason Composition Program, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. (CC-BY-SA 4.0)


Arcserve. “7 Most Infamous Cloud Security Breaches”. Arcserve, 2022,

Alghofaili, Y., Albattah, A., Alrajeh, N., Rassam, M. A., & Al-rimy, B. A. S. (2021). Secure Cloud Infrastructure: A Survey on Issues, Current Solutions, and Open Challenges. Applied Sciences, 11(19), 9005.

Aljumah, A., & Ahanger, T. A. (2020). Cyber security threats, challenges, and defence mechanisms in cloud computing. IET Communications, 14(7), 1185-1191.

Franklin, I. B., & Ravi, T. N. (2018). A Survey on Data Recovery Approaches in Cloud Computing Environment.,

Kumar, S., & Saha, G. K. (2019). Cloud Computing Security Threats and Attack Detection Issues.

Welsh, T., & Benkhelifa, E. (2020). On resilience in cloud computing: A survey of techniques across the cloud domain. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 53(3), 1-36.,

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