Cloning in Physical Anthropology
my topic is clone, so please talks about cloning and history of cloning
This is the link to post your "draft" flyer
This assignment is worth up to 50 points. Your score will come from how complete is your flyer along with all the features students noted in the discussion about the guidelines on this project?
1. Is your draft accurate, with citations in text and one graphics? Do you have a bibliography?
2. Once you upload your draft: evaluate the the similarity report that is generated to this upload.
Make sure to review how much of your presentation is matching other sources.
1. Did you cite these cases?
2. What is the percentage matched?
3. Even if you cited, you don't want too much of your text to be "not your original writing."
1. See the handout "reading your similarity report" (found in module zero) for gudelines or open the guidelines to reading a citation report
3. If you decide to edit your citations, do that now and then upload your draft again to this link to evaluate the newer similarity report.
4. You have to complete your similarity report review BEFORE the due date for this assignment. So upload early.
Cloning in Physical Anthropology
Cloning is a technical and highly sophisticated process in biology and biomedical research that involves the generation (production) of genetically similar or identical forms (copies) of organisms or cells. In the natural physical environment surrounding the human being, cloning occurs when individual cells undergo replication through asexual reproduction without any form of recombination or genetic alteration (Jurmain 15). For instance, organisms devoid of a cell nucleus or prokaryotic organisms, including bacteria, form (generate) genetically similar duplicates of their identity through budding or binary fission. On the contrary, the eukaryotic organisms- those that bear (possess) the cell nucleus, for example, human beings, contain cells that undergo cloning to form clones (Jurmain 16). For instance, the human cells within the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and the skin cells are simply clones since they experience mitosis.
However, some human-oriented cells, such as the gametes- sperms and eggs- are fundamental exceptions from the cloning process since they experience genetic recombination and meiosis. In the field of biomedical research- which has a strong link to physical anthropology- the cloning process is comprehensively defined as the duplication of any given form of biological elements (material)- for instance, somatic cells or pieces of DNA (deoxyribonucleic-acid) (Jurmain 65). Thus, for the purpose of scientific research or study (Jurmain 64). In the field of physical anthropology, one of the fundamental ethical controversies surrounding the cloning process entails the production of cloned embryos, especially human-oriented ones. Indeed, the cloned embryos are genetically similar to the organisms that formed their derivation (Jurmain 65). Essentially, the subsequent application and utilization of the embryos for reproductive, therapeutic, and research endeavors have contributed to the controversial debates amongst scholars and researchers in biology, medicine, anthropology, and bioethics.
The History of Cloning
Spemann Hans, a renowned and skilled embryologist from Germany, is credited with the original trials of reproductive cloning that were undertaken through embryo-splitting or artificial twinning. Indeed, the scientist worked with embryos derived from the salamander in the initial period of the 1900s (Jurmain 66). In 1935, Spemann developed an advanced and unique cloning technique or procedure referred to as nuclear transfer. At a later period, in 1952, American-based scientists King J. Thomas and Briggs W. Robert applied an advanced procedure based on the developments by Spemann for the production of cloned tadpoles from the DNA material drawn from the frog's embryonic cells (Jurmain 67). Further, in 1958 a famed British scientist and Biologist known as Gurdon B. John undertook the process of nuclear transfer through the use of DNA samples (Jurmain 67). The samples were derived from the typical African-oriented clawed frogs.
Technological advancements and developments in the discipline of molecular biology facilitated the establishment of procedures that enable researchers and scientists in embryology to control and monitor cells while analyzing chemical signals that indicate changes in the activity and behavior of cells. The development of transgenic clones occurred in the 1970s through the introduction and application of the recombinant-DNA-Technology (Jurmain 68). Indeed, transgenic clones are unique forms of clones that contain genomes that are composed of elements of DNA derived from organisms. In the initial period of the 1980s, scientists made the breakthrough in the development of clones from mammals, for example, the sheep, as a result of the application of embryonic cells that are partially separated (Jurmain 67). One of the landmark developments in cloning technology happened in the year 1996, through the outstanding contribution of a distinguished developmental scientist and Biologist known as Wilmut Ian (Jurmain 65). The incredible achievement and scientific breakthrough got labeled as Dolly- a famed cloned sheep derived from a cell nucleus that was differentiated.
Jurmain, Robert, et al. Essentials of physical anthropology. Cengage Learning, 2016.
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