Evaluation and Reporting

Posted on: 10th May 2023


Paper detalis:

The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a practical planning, implementing, and evaluation tool that integrates the epidemiological assessment as part of the evaluative process.

For this discussion, refer to the PRECEDE-PROCEED model resources listed in the unit readings.

Using your selected topic, discuss phases 1 and 2 of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model and relate it to your project.

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Evaluation and Reporting

Epidemiology studies the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events. Precede Model is a tool for assessing health needs by applying its different phases. The first phase of the tool concentrates on the social assessment (US Department of Health and Human Services 2018). The model intends to identify the social factors causing diseases in this phase. In the second phase, the tool aims to set and identify priorities in health issues that determine the results to be received. The phases play key important roles in epidemiology.  

Precede Model relies on the community organizing theories and principles in social planning, participatory planning and situational analysis. Community organization helps identify common epidemiological problems and goals (Handyside et al., 2021). To attain the goals, the organization ensures that resources are mobilized with the help of different strategies. Mobilized community members identify the health problem, assess it, and design a program to manage it. As a result, the community comes up with defined epidemiological prevention needs.

The second precede model phase, which involves epidemiological assessment, aims at identifying health problems, issues and resolutions. The phase identifies the behavioral and environmental determinants which contribute to health issues. Under behavioral determinants, the tool uncovers the behaviors and lifestyles that cause health problems. Environment determinants assessed include external social and physical factors that can be eliminated or modified to support a particular behavior that causes health issues or influences a health outcome (Vries, Kremers, & Lippke, 2018). On determining the health problems, the program sets achievable priorities to achieve suitable health outcomes. 

The precede tool helps in the identification of problems. After the problem identification, the evaluators assess the problem to develop the appropriate, achievable goals that can deal with the problem. 



Handyside, L., Warren, R., Devine, S., & Drovandi, A. (2021). Health needs assessment in a regional community pharmacy using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy17(6), 1151-1158.

US Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). Theory at a glance: A guide for health promotion practice. Lulu. com. 

Vries, H. D., Kremers, S. P., & Lippke, S. (2018). Health education and health promotion: Key concepts and exemplary evidence to support them. In Principles and concepts of behavioral medicine (pp. 489-532). Springer, New York, NY.

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