Multicultural Factors Influencing Health

Posted on: 16th May 2023


The country to do the paper on is Canada

NUR 3655: Nursing in a Multicultural Society

One Country: Multi-cultural Factors Influencing Health

Your instructor has assigned a specific country to you for this research assignment.  Directions to reach the Global Road Warrior website on the BSN Library Guide are included in your syllabus in the section regarding this assignment.  It is an excellent place to gain an overview of your assigned country! There are many scholarly resources provided to you in the drop-box folder for this assignment and in the drop-box for the final analysis paper. See your current course calendar for drop-box locations.

A.     Healthcare History & Structure


Provide a brief description of healthcare in this country (include historical information)

·         Explore the delivery of healthcare in the country assigned.  For assistance, see linked scholarly documents in two assignment drop-boxes (this drop box in week 4 and also the week 6 drop-box for your analysis paper).



Describe the current structure of healthcare delivery in the assigned country

·         Briefly describe the current healthcare system of the approved country according to the 4 major models on PBS: Frontline: Sick around the world.


B.  Major Cultural & Socioeconomic Groups


Describe the country’s major cultural and socioeconomic groups.

·        Use the Global Road Warrior on the BSN Library Guide as a starting point.


Explore disparities in healthcare provided to these major groups.

·         Describe healthcare disparities including the impact on the selected groups.





C. Religious or spiritual foundations

Select the major (predominant) religion of this country. If there are two of relatively equal proportion briefly discuss both.

Identify the predominant religion(s) in the assigned country.



Describe their general religious beliefs & practices 

·         Include major religious rituals that take place across the life span



Explore the impact on religious beliefs and practices on health & related behaviors

·         Discuss a minimum of two religious beliefs that impact health practices, healthcare decisions, or health-related behaviors



Textbook chapter 12 will be helpful


D. Global Health Issues


Identify high-risk lifestyle concerns among the population of this country

·         Discuss the lifestyle concerns in the assigned country.  Include obesity, alcohol use, drug abuse, STI’s and other concerns.



Examine infant and maternal morbidity & mortality, including population impact

·         Provide relevant statistics for infant and maternal morbidity/mortality data and how it affects the overall health of the population



Identify the critical global health issues in this country

·         Discuss the two (2) most threatening health / lifestyle / global issues in this country, including statistical data to support your selections.

The World Health Organization and The Commonwealth Fund are primary sources for information. Also see live-linked sources in the drop box for the final paper in the course.


E. References


Use in-text citations within each section, and conclude with references in APA format.


Utilize a minimum of three (3) scholarly references pertaining to the country.

References must be from reliable, professional and/or scholarly sources including peer-reviewed nursing and related journals, published books, & websites of governmental agencies and globally recognized authorities, professional organizations or university websites). NOTE: Wikipedia, commercial travel websites, blogs, or other opinion websites are not acceptable sources.

Please list your references below.




image description Top level essay Service Our professional unemployed professors are waiting for your signal to offer you the best academic writing service you so deserve.
illustration of a woman populating a checklist.


Multicultural Factors Influencing Health

A.    Healthcare History & Structure

Access to healthcare based on need rather than the ability to pay was the founding principle of the Canadian health system. Medicare was first introduced in one province in 1947 and later spread across the country through federal cost-sharing (Martin et al., 2018). Later, it was harmonized through standards in federal law. Canada’s healthcare system is government-sponsored, with its services provided by private entities (Sawyer et al., n.d.). Healthcare systems tend to follow the The Out-Of-Pocket-Model, The Bismarck Model, The National Health Insurance Model, and Beveridge Model. Canada's health care system uses the National Health Insurance Model (NHI) and the Out-Of-Pocket model (PBS, n.d). The NHI model uses private-sector providers, but payments come from a government-run insurance program that citizens pay. These universal insurance programs tend to be cheaper and much simpler to administer. The out-of-pocket model involves payment of treatment by those who can pay from their own pockets. While the system is not perfect, the Canadian government is working towards improving healthcare by establishing regulations that protect every citizen's right to access the best medical care, whether they are insured or not.

B.     Major Cultural & Socioeconomic Groups

Canada is a multicultural country that has excellent ethnic diversity. Just like any other country, Canada has a culture that has been shaped by history. The Canadian culture is mainly influenced by the various European cultures and traditions of its constituent nationalities, primarily British and French cultures (, 2021). According to (Statistics Canada Canada, 2017), 60.5% of the population reported origins from the British Isles, and 31.1% reported French origins. Over the years, the number of British Isles and French origins decreased but remained among Canada's most frequent cultures. Furthermore, there are influences from the cultures of its indigenous peoples and the neighboring USA. Socioeconomic status means an individual’s level of income, education, wealth, and prestige.

Life expectancy and health disparities have increased worldwide, including in Canada. However, these gains are not equally distributed across all population groups. According to (Bushnik et al., 2020), disparities exist, especially according to socioeconomic position. In many countries, it is reported that people with less education or lower-income are disadvantaged in the healthcare industry. Additionally, racial and ethnic minorities tend to receive a lower quality of care than the major cultural groups (Egede, 2006). This biasness causes division among the cultures and the different socioeconomic groups.

C.    Religious or Spiritual Foundations

Many developed countries have growing popularity of irreligion, and so is Canada. Nevertheless, Canada remains a Christian-dominated state. Canada also tolerates other faiths and religions since it does not have an official religion. About 67% of the population identifies Christianity, Roman Catholicism, and protestant Christianity being the major religions. Being a multicultural country, Canada faces many challenges in dealing with healthcare because of its distinctive religious beliefs (Stephenson, 2009). For example, Christians believe that abortion, fertility drugs, in-vitro fertilization, and artificial insemination are wrong. However, in healthcare, these practices are allowed if they benefit the patient. Sexuality is associated with questions about circumcisions, birth control, paternity, and infertility. Furthermore, death is linked to health quandaries in which religious view is deeply felt and sharply divided.

Life extension through organ transplants, euthanasia, palliation, and post-mortem examinations are areas where religious views and practices dominate the decision-making process (Stephenson, 2009). Religious beliefs often differ with the healthcare procedures where questions arise about certain instances such as the transformations of pregnancy and birth and death divides through religious practices and beliefs about medicine. When people of different ethnic traditions holding contradictory religious beliefs about the meaning of life gather to make decisions about the care and treatment of those suffering, the experience may be faced with difficulties.

D.    Global Health Issues

Good health is a significant resource for social, economic, and personal development and essential for a healthy life. In general, Canada is a healthy country, with overall mortality rates and life expectancy improving significantly over the last few decades. According to (Cook et al., 2017), around 1999/2000 and 2014/2015, Canada's public health agency reported a range of 5.1 to 11.9 per 100,000 deliveries in pregnancy-related mortality. Severe morbidity peaking in 2013/2014 at 16.4 per 1000 hospital deliveries was reported by the Canadian Institute of Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database (Cook et al., 2017).

In 2015, the infant mortality rate was 4.590 deaths per 1000 live births, and in 2019, there was a decline in the mortality rate where the rate was 4.393 deaths per 1000 live births, indicating a 2.49% decline from 2018. The current infant mortality rate is 4.055 deaths per 1000 live births, a 2.71 percent decline from 2021(Macrotrends, n.d).

According to the Chief Public Health Officer’s 2018 report, Canadian youths and young adults are constantly abusing drugs, leading to a decrease in life expectancy. The substance abused most is opioids, whereas (Murray, 2020) over the past five years, there has been a rapid increase in hospitalizations related to opioids amongst young adults. In addition, 25% of youths in grades 7 to 12 exhibit drinking behavior which is very risky. Adoption of healthy behavior is a step to healthy living. However, most of the population in Canada does not engage in physical activities; for instance, less than 10 percent of children aged 5-17 meet a 24-hour movement guideline, and 80 percent of the adult population do not meet physical activity guidelines (Murray, 2020). Many chronic diseases can be delayed or prevented with the appropriate physical activities.

Obesity rates in Canada for the youth have nearly tripled over the last three decades. Obesity puts those affected at a higher risk of developing further health issues, for instance, hypertension. In addition, Canada faces a significant public health challenge in preventing chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes. These diseases cause about 65 percent of all deaths in Canada each year (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2017). Depression and anxiety disorders are also causing health concerns in Canada. Therefore, Canadian citizens should embrace physical activities and better living habits to lead healthier lives and have fewer complications.



Bushnik, T., Tjepkema, M., & Martel, L. (2020, January 15). Socioeconomic disparities in life and health expectancy among the household population in Canada. Statistics Canada.

Macrotrends. (n.d). Canada Infant Mortality Rate 1950-2022. Retrieved from Macrotrends:

Statistics Canada, S. (2017, October 25). Ethnic and cultural origins of Canadians: Portrait of a rich heritage. Retrieved from Statistics Canada:

Cook, Jocelynn L.; Majd, Mina; Blake, Jennifer; Barrett, Jon (Yosef); Bouvet, Sylvie; Janssen, Patricia; Knight, Marian; Lisonkova, Sarka; Scott, Heather; Tough, Suzanne; Wong, Tom (2017). Measuring Maternal Mortality and Morbidity in Canada. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 39(11), 1028–1037. doi:10.1016/j.jogc.2017.06.021 

Egede, L. E. (2006). Race, ethnicity, culture, and disparities in health care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(6), 667-669.

Martin, Danielle; Miller, Ashley P; Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; Caron, Nadine R; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Marchildon, Gregory P (2018). Canada's universal health-care system: achieving its potential. The Lancet, (), S0140673618301818–. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30181-8 

PBS. (n.d). Five countries - health care systems -- the four basic models | Sick around the world | frontline. Retrieved from PBS:

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2017, April 11). How healthy are Canadians?

Sawyer, M. P., Gao, Q., Dong, Y., & Chen, Z. X. (n.d.). An Overview of the Canadian Health Care System. (2021, May 12). Canadian Culture. Retrieved from

Stephenson, P. H. (2009, January). Health care, religion, and ethnic diversity in Canada. ResearchGate | Find and share research.

Peter Seiyanoi

Peter Seiyanoi

0 reviews | 0 orders
  • Do you need help with an
    online class, essay or assignment?

  • Find the right expert among 500+

    We hire Gradewriters writers from different fields, thoroughly check their credentials, and put them through trials.

    View all writers

Tough Essay Due? Hire Tough Essay Writers!

We have subject matter experts ready 24/7 to tackle your specific tasks and deliver them ON TIME, ready to hand in. Our writers have advanced degrees, and they know exactly what’s required to get you the best possible grade.

View all writers

Find the right expert among 500+

We hire Gradewriters writers from different fields, thoroughly check their credentials, and put them through trials.

View all writers