Please complete each of the essay questions below:
Essay 1: The basic equation for risk is defined as R = ƒ(C*V*T) where R is the level of risk, C is the consequences (public health, our economy, government action, public confidence in our institutions) of an attack, V is an assessment of the vulnerability of a potential target (how hard or easy it would be for it to be hit by terrorists) and T is the threat or the likelihood that a specific target will suffer an attack or disaster from a specific weapon. The Department of Homeland Security has stated that it will apply risk management principles to homeland security operations and has stated that "Ultimately, homeland security is about effectively managing risks to the Nation's security" (DHS, 2010, p. 2). Drawing upon your class readings and additional research examine how risk management is used by the homeland security enterprise and how that use benefits such aspects as resource allocation, strategic planning, grant award, or any of the multitudes of other homeland security issues or operations.
Essay 2: In your readings you have been provided a variety of definitions for the term homeland security. Additionally, the national strategies and readings have talked to the difference between homeland security and homeland defense. Drawing upon your readings and other class materials, craft two columns; one labeled Homeland Security and the other Homeland Defense. Under the headers of each column list those missions, tasks, duties, responsibilities, operations, etc. which are identified from the national policies, strategies and readings. Some tasks may be listed under both columns. Where this occurs, be sure to identify if there is any element of that item that is specific to either homeland security or homeland defense. Lastly, drawing upon the list you developed, provide a definition of homeland security.
Essay 3: Critical infrastructure is defined in the National Infrastructure Protection Plan as "Systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital that the incapacity or destruction of such may have a debilitating impact on the security, economy, public health or safety, environment, or any combination of these matters, across any Federal, State, regional, territorial, or local jurisdiction" (DHS, 2009, p. 109). From this definition, one can reasonably presume that protection of these assets is vital to the well-being of the United States and as such is an essential element of homeland security. Drawing upon the readings provide your assessment of the capability of the nation's infrastructure protection program to ensure the survivability of its critical infrastructure.
Essay 4: Provide an examination of the various elements that comprise Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. This should include a description of major laws, programs, and activities post 9/11. Evaluate their impact on civil liberties within the United States. Lastly, your examination of the question should include a fact based analysis of overall positive or negative impact on the nation.
• Your paper must be at a minimum of 8-12 pages, or 2-3 pages for each question (the Title and Reference pages do not count towards the minimum limit).
• Scholarly and credible references should be used. A good rule of thumb is at least 2 scholarly sources per page of content.
• Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.
• Students will follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework.
• Points will be deducted for the use of Wikipedia or encyclopedic type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.
• All submissions will be graded using the assignment rubric.
The Secretary of Homeland Security established a policy for Integrated Risk Management in 2010. The most important aspect of the policy is that risk management can be achieved effectively through working together. Besides, it also states that management capabilities ought to be established, sustained, and integrated with the Federal, state, territorial, private sector, and nongovernmental homeland security partners. According to Decker (2001), successful integration requires implementation across the entire Homeland Security enterprise. Therefore, the department plays a crucial role in leading a unified effort to manage risk for the nation's benefit from a complex and diverse set of hazards such as natural and artificial disasters, acts of terrorism, transnational crimes, pandemics, and cyber-attacks. The initial step in ensuring effective integration of risk management is to establish guidance and doctrine. Accordingly, the department has established Risk Management Fundamentals as its doctrine that provides a structured approach for employing and distributing risk information and analyzing the enterprise.
Whereas the doctrine is an important effort by the department to achieve its risk management objectives, risk management requires a unified effort of the components to formulate and implement essential risk management practices and methods. The D.H.S. risk management efforts, have been a positive movement towards strengthening and maturing its ability to deal with homeland security issues. The homeland security environment of the United States is characterized by complexity and is full of competing interests, requirements, and incentives that need to be managed and balanced effectively to ensure the achievement of crucial national objectives. The ability to identify complex opportunities and challenges is the gist of risk management (Decker, 2001). Risk management is a strategy for formulating and implementing better homeland security decisions. Improving homeland security requires the connection of information about activities, risks, and capabilities and using the information for guiding prevention, recovery, and response efforts.
The process of risk management, as implemented by D.H.S., defines the sequence for planning and analyzing the risk context and is marked by different steps. First, it defines the context of risk (D.H.S., 2011). The step involves identifying the context for the decision that needs to be supported by the risk management process. The second step is to identify the potential risks through the consideration of the risks in a holistic manner to support decision making, institutional risk, operation, and focusing on strategy. The assessment and analysis of the risks is the next step. The step involves selecting the most appropriate methodology for assessing risk depending on the decision that the assessment ought to inform. The process also includes gathering data based on all the crucial aspects of the decision. After that, the risk management process moves to the development of alternatives. Then the decision is made on the risk management strategies to be employed. Evaluation and monitoring is the next step where performance measurement is built to determine whether the implemented risk management actions have effectively achieved the stated objectives and goals. Finally, D.H.S. embarks on a risk communication process involving internal and external audiences depending on the timeframe and requirements.
Risk management plays a crucial role in homeland security. First, numerous cases of uncertainty in the recent past have had dire impacts on homeland security. Risk is the main cause of uncertainty in security, and thus, the department has to focus on how to identify and manage them (D.H.S., 2011). Second, the management of risks ensures that the department function more effectively in deciding the future. Knowledge of risks that it faces provides it with different options for dealing with potential problems. Third, risk management is a way of understanding that homeland security is not certain, and there are various aspects of life. Fourth, risk management enables the department to narrow its focus based on quantifiable information. Risk management also enables D.H.S. to identify real-world events' potential outcomes, hence better decision making. Finally, the decisions concerning resource allocation and strategic planning are key in ensuring security.
1. The mission of homeland defense is to uphold and preserve the nation's prosperity and economic security (Reese, 2012).
2. Homeland security refers to the collective efforts to prevent terrorist attacks, reduce the nation's vulnerability to terrorism, minimize the damage and recover from terrorist attacks.
3. Another important mission of homeland security is to enhance security and manage and secure the nation's borders (Reese, 2012).
4. Homeland security also operates on administering and reinforcing immigration, ensuring disaster resilience, and administering cyberspace.
5. Whereas D.O.D plays a support role in homeland defense, it plays the lead role in homeland security.
6. Homeland security is also concerned with the National Guard's state activity duties and ballistic missile defense. It also deals with airport security, maritime security, and D.O.D community relations.
7. Homeland security provides warning and intelligence of possible attacks, defends the nation against catastrophic threats, and ensures emergency preparedness and response (Reese, 2012).
8. Homeland security is conducted through a coordinated effort of the state, federal, and local governments to ensure protection against disasters and respond to threats.
9. Homeland security is also involved in investigating people suspected to be engaged in child pornography distribution, biodefense, and detection of radiological and radioactive materials.
10. It is also concerned with researching next-generation security technologies and investigating transnational crimes, including extortion and money laundering.
11. The Federal government carries the cost of homeland security operations and reviews by Congress.
1. The homeland defense forces provide capabilities for life-saving during national emergencies. They are professionals trained in treatment, identification, decontamination, and containment of potential threats, including search and rescue.
2. The Department of Defense protects the nation from threats through two interrelated missions, including civil support, which deals with the support of other agencies and departments, and homeland defense, dealing with protection from attack threats.
3. D.O.D also protects the nation through military services, functional and geographic commands, and defense agencies working to ensure stability through participation in conflicts worldwide.
4. Homeland defense pertains to protecting territory, critical infrastructure, homeland population, and sovereignty from aggression and outside threats.
5. Functions through the direction of the president through the United States Department of Defense, which, together with other departments and agencies under D.O.D, leads the mission of homeland defense (DeMaso, 2004).
6. Responses to external threats affect the international environment of the United States through the application of economic, diplomatic, information, and military means.
7. D.O.D is equipped with numerous guidance, policies, and strategies in interagency coordination for homeland defense and missions for civil support.
8. D.O.D plays the support role in homeland defense (DeMaso, 2004).
9. The National Guard operates through the command of the U.S Defense Secretary but is divided into 54 different National Guard organizations.
10. When the National Guard forces are mobilized, they operate under the State Active Duty (S.A.D.) commanded by the Governor with missions specific to the states' needs and guidelines of statutes and laws.
11. The states carry operational costs unless the president declares the disaster event.
12. States can operate a different homeland defense besides the D.O.D and operate distinctly from it.
From the information, homeland security can be defined as an entity charged with protecting the United States by countering terrorism, securing borders, and preventing and recovering from disaster, among others, for prosperity.
The ability to protect critical infrastructure and other crucial resources is important to the public health, safety, and security of the United States. Such protection also contributes to the nation's economy and has been regarded as a way of life. U.S policy is based on enhancing critical infrastructure protection to ensure that key government missions, economic functions, and public services are maintained in events such as terrorist attacks. According to the Department of Homeland Security (2006), the protection is also aimed at ensuring the sustainability of the resources during natural disasters and other incidents. The element of critical infrastructure ought not to be used as weapons of mass destruction against the population of the United States. Through the president's direction, the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security is required to develop a national plan and coordinate and implement national initiatives that can unify and enhance the protection of critical infrastructure.
The Department of Homeland Security achieves the objective of protecting critical infrastructure through an unprecedented partnership that includes Federal, state, tribal, and local governments and the private sector. The current National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) developed by the department meets the set by the president in the Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 (HSPD-7), Prioritization and Protection, and the Critical Infrastructure Identification. The plan gives the overarching approach of integrating the numerous critical infrastructure protection into one national effort. NIPP ensures a coordinated approach employed in establishing national priorities, requirements, and goals for protecting critical infrastructure (Department of Homeland Security, 2006). The fundamental purpose is to ensure that the federal government's resources and money are put to the best possible use to deter threats, reduce vulnerability, and mitigate the effects of attacks and other catastrophes. The plan also identifies the overarching concepts relevant to critical infrastructure sectors as identified under HSPD-7 and addresses physical, human, and cyber considerations required for the effective implementation of comprehensive programs.
The plan also identifies the essential initiatives, metrics, and milestones needed to achieve the critical infrastructure protection mission of the nation. The plan is characterized by a comprehensive risk management framework defining the roles and responsibilities of the Federal, state, tribal, local, the Department of Homeland Security, and other partners in the security sector. Some of the sectors that form the country's critical infrastructure include information technology, banking and finance, and public health (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004). The sectors rely heavily on computerized systems and information to provide public services. To fulfill the requirements outlined in the comprehensive plan, which include cyber aspects, D.H.S. has issued a national plan to be applied by these sectors in enhancing critical infrastructure protection. The lead Federal agencies are responsible for coordinating the protection efforts of critical infrastructure, including developing plans that are specific to each sector. The extent to which these sectors address security aspects in their respective plans varies greatly.
A total of 16 critical infrastructure sectors offer vital services to the economy of the United States through their systems, networks, and assets, either virtually or physically. The destruction or incapacitation of such infrastructure would create debilitating consequences to security, safety, and national economic security. Therefore, Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) requires that the Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience create a national policy to strengthen and maintain secure, resilient, and functioning critical infrastructure. The directive supersedes HSPD-7 (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004). Nonetheless, although successes have been identified in protecting critical infrastructure, it is clear that sustained collaboration and coordination among and between the security partners is crucial to the successful implementation of the plan. Therefore, NIPP also provides certain implementation guidelines for the Federal agencies and departments and recommendations for implementation to other security partners.
The Departments of Homeland Security and homeland security mission emerged as a reserve of the Americans following the 9/11 attacks. Americans witnessed selfless service, unified resolve, and true heroism. The reason is that the nation rallied together for a common defense with the pledge to remain together against any threats to the nation. Therefore, the department was created to develop resilience against threats of attacks and ensure that American dwell in a safe, prosperous, secure environment. According to Morreale & Lambert (2009), the core values of homeland security include integrity, vigilance, and respect. Integrity pertains to self before service, which entails that each individual serves in a capacity far beyond their interests. The second core value of vigilance means guarding the nation through relentless identification and deterring o threats that create dangers to the population of America. The department will be on constant guard against threats, dangers, or hazards that threaten Americans' way of life and values. Finally, respect means honoring America's partners by valuing the relationships created with stakeholders, partners, and customers. The value also means honoring the concepts such as democracy and liberty, which America believes in.
Homeland security also has certain guiding principles, including championing relentless resilience to all hazards and threats. The second principle is to reduce the nation's risk of homeland security danger. Promotion of the engagement of citizens and strengthening and expanding trusted relationships is the third principle. The fourth principle upholds transparency, civil rights and liberties, and privacy. Finally, homeland security also strives to ensure mission-driven management and integration. From the values and principles, the Department of Homeland Security has also established six core missions for its operations (Morreale & Lambert, 2009). First, to counter-terrorism and homeland security threats. Secondly, to secure the American borders and approaches. The third mission is to secure critical infrastructure and cyberspace. Fourthly, to uphold and preserve America's economic security and prosperity. Fifth is strengthening resilience and preparedness. The last mission is championing the D.H.S. workforce and supporting all departments.
The D.H.S. must work under certain featured laws and regulations to achieve these missions. For example, the Homeland Security Act 2002 carries all the department's mandates, including terrorist attack prevention, reducing the nation's vulnerability to terrorism, and investigating and prosecuting terrorists. In addition, Sean and David Goldman International Child Abduction Prevention and Return Act of 2014 (Pub. L. No. 113-150) were formed under the act and deal with compliance with the international child abduction by countries that partner with the United States (Wong & Lovelace Jr, 2004). Other important laws include the Immigration and Nationality Act (I.N.A.) and the Accuracy for Adoptees Act (Pub. L. No. 113-74), both pertaining to acquiring a certificate for citizenship.
Experts often differ in considering the level of civil liberties and national security. Moreover, there is a need to consider a balance between these competing goals. The lawyers who advocate for civil liberties often argue strongly for the need to safeguard individuals' rights (Wong & Lovelace Jr, 2004). One of the reasons given for these requirements is that it is a key to winning the fight against terrorists. However, the fight against terrorists has seen numerous occasions of excessive force by law enforcement, including the shoot to kill order. As a result, it has violated most of the rights under the First Amendment, most importantly, the right to life. Therefore, there is a need to emphasize the safeguarding of human rights in all the works done by D.H.S. Nevertheless, the department's mission has benefitted the nation by fostering security and economic prosperity. Besides, the work done by the department is still in the early stages and is expected to become better moving forward.
Decker, R. J. (2001). Homeland security: key elements of a risk management approach. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC.
DeMaso, W. C. (2004). The Relationship between Homeland Defense and Homeland Security: US Northern Command's Rubik's Cube. AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL.
[D.H.S.] U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2011). Risk Management Fundamentals: Homeland Security Risk Management Doctrine.
Department of Homeland Security. (2006). National infrastructure protection plan.
Morreale, S. A., & Lambert, D. E. (2009). Homeland security and the police mission. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 6(1).
Moteff, J., & Parfomak, P. (2004, October). Critical infrastructure and key assets: definition and identification. Library of Congress Washington DC Congressional Research Service.
Reese, S. (2012, April). Defining homeland security: Analysis and congressional considerations. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
Wong, L., & Lovelace Jr, D. C. (2004). Homeland Security and Civil Liberties. ARMY WAR COLL STRATEGIC STUDIES INST CARLISLE BARRACKS PA.
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