Role of the Memory
Psychology: MEMORY AND LEARNING PAPER
Students will conduct a search of published literature exploring the connection between learning and memory. Describe the role that memory plays in classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, and social learning theory. This paper should contain five empirical research studies. This assignment should be 5 to 7 pages in length excluding the title page, abstract, and reference section and must be complete in APA format (7th ed.).
The paper should include:
- Be a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 7 full pages, size 12 font Times New Roman, double spaced with 1 inch margins, NOT including the Title and References pages.
- A title page
- Include the sub headings of: “Introduction”, “Role of Memory in Classical Conditioning”, “Role of Memory in instrumental Conditioning”, “Role of Memory in Social Learning Theory”, and “Conclusions”.
- Introductory paragraph ending in a clear thesis statement
- Several well-developed (5-7 sentences) body paragraphs that explore the assignment questions in detail
- A summary and conclusions paragraph
Be sure to submit your project in one Word document in APA 7th ed. Format.
Role of the Memory
The concept of Memory and Learning has a unique relationship. Learning is defined as acquiring skills and knowledge, while memory is defined as expressing what has already been reached. The concept of learning depends on the idea of memory in a deeper study. This is because the knowledge stored in the memory usually acts as the framework in which the new association typically links the unique ability. According to American Psychological Association, learning means the process of securing information and skills. At the same time, memory commonly refers to how the mind stores the data and how the information is recalled.
Memory is one of the essential aspects which plays several roles. Memory is a software program that helps you organize and manage your files. It is also used to gather, store, retain, and retrieve data. There are only three types of main processes involved in memory: it encode, store, and retrieve data. Human memory typically can preserve and, at other times, recover information that people have learned and experienced. Memory has problems that are considered annoyances which are minor such as forgetting special days such as birthdays. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which the conditioned stimulus (CS) is typically connected to an unconditioned stimulus (US) that has nothing to do with generating the response of behavior known as Conditioned Response (CR) (Bouton & Moody, 2004). The Conditional response is considered a learned response to the previous stimulus, which is neutral. Instrumental conditioning is referred to in other words as Operant Conditioning. Operant Conditioning is a style in which a reinforcement like food is usually delivered contingent on the response.
The Social Learning theory, a proposal by Albert Bandura, typically emphasizes the significance of observation, Modeling, and imitation of behaviors and emotional reactions and attitudes. The idea of Social learning proposes that individuals usually learn and understand concepts through observing and copying the behaviors of others. The effect of such behaviors is then evaluated by keeping the positive and the negative consequences. The theory of Social learning considers both the environment and the interaction of the cognitive factors to influence human understanding and behavior. Memory interacts with each of these above-listed factors. Memory is considered vital as it plays several significant roles in Classical Conditioning, Instrumental Conditioning, and the major social learning theory. Punishments are not a good way to encourage people as they may have long-term effects. In some cases, it might even result in more significant issues like depression and low self-esteem (Peter, 2017). Although instrumental conditioning is an effective way of encouraging people, there should be a limit to the punishments imposed as they may result in more harm than good.
Role of Memory in Classical Conditioning.
A psychologist Ivan Pavlov developed a memory theory called classical conditioning. It is described as a kind of automatic learning. The education process creates a conditioned type of response through the form of association between the unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus. In other terms, it usually means a process of placing the neutral stimulus before a reflex that is naturally occurring (Bouton & Moody, 2004). An example of Classical Conditioning is that when a dad comes home wearing a baseball cap and takes the child to play, the child will be excited when every time he sees the dad with the lid, he associates the baseball cap with playing. Memory in such a case has made the child remember and keep the baseball cap record with playing (Bouton & Moody, 2004). There are several places where Classical Conditioning will need memory. For example, in human memory processing, some theories assume that conditioning in specific typically needs processing of the CS and the US together in the Short-term kind of memory after undergoing trials of conditioning for the association to be stored in the long-term kind of memory.
Memory is usually conceptualized in types, Stages, and mainly processes. However, the implicit type of memory is majorly informed in Classical Conditioning. The inferential type of memory revolves around perception and unconscious emotional memory. Classical conditioning requires the implicit kind of memory to carry out significant types of its processes, which is why it is sometimes considered a form of implicit memory. Learning the relationship between neutral and conditioned stimuli requires effort. This is due to the reason that it is based on the motor kind of skills. Therefore, the effects of Classical Conditioning are used in Implicit Memory. People often learn without using efforts to associate neutral stimuli like sound with another type of stimulus like food. The conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, leading to a particular reflexive behavior (Bouton & Moody, 2004). One of the examples of using Classical Conditioning in Implicit Memory is advertising. The advertisers use music to advertise their products by playing it repeatedly and then stop suddenly whenever their product is being advertised on the screen. This will make viewers have a conditioned response of wanting to buy the product when they see or hear the music played (Bouton & Moody, 2004).
Role of Memory in Instrumental Conditioning
Instrumental conditioning is also called Operant conditioning. It usually entails using punishments and reinforcements to encourage and discourage certain behaviors that may occur in the future (Peter, 2017). An example of Instrumental Conditioning is when employees work well; they usually get a promotion or raise their salary. When they do not get their tasks properly, they get a deduction in their pay as a source of punishment. Both reinforcements and sentences can be categorized into two. Mounts include; positive and negative reinforcements. Positive reinforcements are given to favorable consequences, while negative reinforcements to adverse outcomes. Unpleasant stimulus stigma is usually introduced to individuals to avoid bad results in negative reinforcements. Punishments have two types, positive and negative sentences. Positive discipline is to present an unpopular event after an undesirable behavior, while negative entails taking a popular thing to discourage bad behavior.
Instrumental conditioning helps in memory retention as a child will understand what’s good and evil. Introducing pleasant stimuli to individuals will encourage good behavior (Peter, 2017). Doing so, such events will stick in the memory; thus, the probability of one retaining what’s right would be high. Negative reinforcements and punishments will make the memory know and decode that undesirable behavior is unpleasant. Instrumental conditioning helps in the retainment of good memory. Through experiences one gets in every event that happens, memories are built. Furthermore, such memories will determine a person’s behavior, making instrumental conditioning quite effective.
Role of Memory in Social Learning Theory
Social Learning Theory typically suggests that social behavior is learned by factors such as observation as well as imitation of the behaviors of others. Memory plays several roles in the social learning theory. Memory in Social learning theory plays a more significant role in storing, retaining, and retrieving information learned (Nelly, 2019). The memory also assists in forming and updating the models of the experiences, and the models are used to navigate the social world. Research shows that the social dynamics in the social learning theory are considered complex, unstructured, labile, and difficult to predict (Nelly, 2019). Navigation, which is deemed to be successful through the social kind of landscapes, is essential in forming and maintaining the social bonds of physical and mental health. Evidence shows that the autobiography memory (recalling the personally experienced events) and inferring on the mental health of others (theory of mind) do share with the functional neuroanatomy, which is extensive and may be considered critical for the social cognition is adaptive. The autobiographical memory and the interference of the mind have been hypothesized to facilitate personal and interpersonal information. The Integration may provide the experiences to turn into the social knowledge, which is conceptualized, and usually gives information about the strategic social behavior.
Memory interacts with the social-cognitive processes in exciting and diverse ways. The interaction is generally reflected through different types of personal differences, neuropsychological and development studies(Nelly, 2019). The findings from the various researchers show that memory is an essential contributor to the social learning theory. The nature of memory, which is constructive, whereby the elements of previous experiences are usually woven together during the recollection period, dramatically supports the imagination in which the details of the prior experiences are taken back in novel ways. On the other hand, the nature of memory considered constructive usually leaves the subject of recollection to distortions that argue that the nature of memory serves an adaptive social function.
The personal memories content usually merges in the social interaction processes, which in turn typically foster the sense of the identity that is collective. Memory is significant to all learning and has a broader connection because it allows for storing, updating, retaining, and retrieving any information that has been studied. Memory is considered a record that has been gotten after a learning process; thus, memory depends on the learning factor. The primary function of memory is to assist in recalling the past, updating the models of the experiences, and using the models in navigating the models. Learning is considered acquiring skill and knowledge, while memory is taken as the expression of the record or the theories developed (Thompson & Kim, 1996). Memory plays a more significant role in Instrumental Conditioning and Classical Conditioning in retaining the information which will assist in changing and affecting the behavior. Memory is also divided into different types according to their function, such as explicit Memory and implicit Memory.
Explicit memory discusses more on the knowledge and experiences that can be consciously recalled, while implicit memory focuses on factors related to Classical Conditioning. First, memory majorly assists people in maintaining a record of their past. Classical conditioning is essential in helping us understand various forms of addiction, dependence on drugs, and work (Schreurs & Alkon, 2001). Finally, the classical conditioning concept and the concept of memory assist teachers in class to create a classroom environment that is positive and which helps students in overcoming fear and anxiety. Memory is a vital concept, and it plays a crucial role in classical Conditioning, Instrumental Conditioning, and the social learning theory.
Bouton, M. E., & Moody, E. W. (2004). Memory processes in classical conditioning. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 28(7), 663–674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.09.001
Nelly, J. (2019). Examining the role of memory in social cognition | Frontiers Research Topic. Www.frontiersin.org. https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/680/examining-the-role-of-memory-in-social-cognition#:~:text=Social%20dynamics%20are%20extraordinarily%20complex
Peter, K. (2017). Instrumental conditioning - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. Www.sciencedirect.com. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/instrumental-conditioning
Schreurs, B. G., & Alkon, D. L. (2001). Imaging learning and memory: Classical conditioning. The Anatomical Record, 265(6), 257–273. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.10031
Thompson, R. F., & Kim, J. J. (1996). Memory systems in the brain and localization of a memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(24), 13438–13444. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.24.13438
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