The penny should be disposed of.
Please refer to the attached doc, I need the outline to be re-written to look like the example. I also need you to add a counterclaim piece.
A. (attention getter) Imagine someone basing the next most important years of your life- what you will do, who you will meet, and where you will go- solely based on one quantitative test that says nothing about who you are as an individual person. This is exactly what every university does when deciding what students to accept.
B. (claim) College admissions, and overall human intelligence, should not be reliant on standardized testing approaches.
C. (preview) First, we will explore the reasons why standardized testing for college admission is biased. Then, we will delve into the issue that standardized testing does not accurately measure intelligence.
D. (credibility) As a recent taker of both the ACT and SAT, I've experienced first-hand what the research concludes. Throughout this talk, you will be presented with studies and opinions from leaders in both academia and government.
E. (common ground/counter claim) Although standardized tests are an easy tool for college admission boards and teach students how to take a test, not every student is an avid test taker, and they take away from the students' overall academic resume. Test takers should be able to display their expert skill, but students stronger in other areas should be able to exhibit their talents as well. (counter claim)
begin, we will be discussing the reasons why standardized testing for college admission does curately measure academic intelligence on every level.
F. Students waste their entire high school education getting a "perfect" standardized test score instead of learning concepts that will prepare them for college.
i. The amount of knowledge and understanding of the material the student demonstrates is the reason these colleges use standardized tests. However, the problem is that students are taught to simply master the test such as the SAT and ACT through tips and tricks and often lack the actual understanding of the content. Students have difficulty applying the knowledge learned through pure memorization in settings other than the SAT and ACT.
ii. Since many colleges have become very competitive and are solely accepting scores that indicate outstanding academic prestige, students are trying to master the test without any understanding of the material. Teachers are preparing students for standardized tests by starting at the beginning of high school. (Gunzelmann).
G. Standardized tests are quantitatively assessed which does not show every skill of the students.
i. Standardized tests are scored using a multiple-choice method even though not every student thinks the same way when choosing an answer. Some students may be more open minded and creative which some experts believe can end up hurting them rather than helping them (Gunzelman). Therefore, if an individual has another answer in mind that they believe is correct, they are unable to express their opinion.
ii. In most cases, students that have below average test scores are not unintelligent. Often, these students could be on the honor roll in their class. However, their strong academic area might not be multiple choice testing, but rather in creative writing, presenting, learning languages, group projects, or the arts. (Tampio).
For many years now, standardized tests have been the main factor for colleges when deciding admissions since it is thought that they measure academic intelligence and success for students' college career. However, many universities do not understand that one multiple choice test does not exhibit the students' skills and accomplishments over the course of their high school years.
III. Although standardized tests are thought to be fair among all students, many experts have suggested that they are quite biased.
a. When used for college admissions, the SAT and ACT are biased towards lower income students.
i. For example, these standardized tests are very difficult and most students often feel they need extra preparation through tutors and classes. However, lower income students are at a severe disadvantage as they are unable to pay for these courses and further their preparation. (Seymour).
ii. Also, besides the fact that preparation courses and tutors are inaccessible to all students, another factor is that lower income students are more likely to be prone to "lack of health care and food, exposure to family violence, and high levels of absenteeism" (Morgan). These factors greatly increase chances of lower grades and lower test scores. Yet, in most cases, these situations are unavoidable.
b. Standardized tests also seem to be biased towards different cultural backgrounds.
i. The reading multiple choice questions could be answered differently based on an individual's background and culture. (Banks). Answers will be formulated upon their own culture.
ii. The test formulators did not grow up with the same experiences as every student taking the SAT and ACT. Therefore, to think that the students will be able to answer the inferential questions correctly when there are too many cultural and ethnic factors is very unreasonable.
c. An alternative to the present system could be a compromise of all best approaches. There may be room for a standardized test like the ACT or SAT to play a role, but that should be all. The test should be only a small part of a much larger analysis that looks at student strengths as well.
Even though standardized tests have been thought to be fair to all students, research is suggesting that hey can be biased towards all cultural backgrounds. Additionally, there are not enough resources available for low-income students which is unfair toward them.
IV. (Summary, call to action, end). Overall, although standardized tests have its benefit of being easily scored for college admissions and teaches students how to be under testing conditions, the negatives outweigh the positives as they do not show the student as an overall applicant. The positive side is that colleges can use a different method for admissions. Standardized tests simply show how well students can take a test without showing how well they will succeed in a university classroom or their future career.
Dispose of the Pennies
Pennies in this era are worthless; people walk past pennies nowadays compared to the 1980s, where pennies were worth both time and effort. People worked and earned pennies for their effort, and picking pennies on the road was a sign of good luck. The value of pennies has dropped with change in times. Today, pennies have no value currency-wise; and are used as ornaments and subjects in wise sayings. With their value drop, they should be removed from circulation.
Pennies are Trivial
Pennies have dropped in Value
In the early years, pennies were worth someone's effort; in early 2000, they were used to buy packing tickets, ice cream, and candies (Picchi 2). Of recent, their value has dropped, and it's not worth a thing.
Pennies are Valueless Currency
The aim goal of currency is to buy, sell, and general exchange. As of now, pennies are incapable of carrying their intended role, rendering them useless (Picchi 4). If an object does not serve its purpose, then what is the use of having it around.
Pennies Lead to Wastage
Logically speaking, pennies are manufactured to do nothing in this age. Why produce something that is not needed or does not aid in anything? People throw-away pennies, and others throw them on the ground. Americans throw pennies worth $62million in the garbage (Picchi 6). The cost of producing pennies is more than their worth.
Negative Effects on the Environment
Pennies are 97% zinc, so they are made of zinc. To get the zinc to manufacture pennies involves mining. Mining sites contain 3- 11% of zinc; so, a larger area has to be covered to get enough zinc to produce pennies, hence detrimental to the environment (Spector 45). A more significant part of the land is destroyed, and still, it's not worth the effort and after-effects.
Harmful Metals from Zinc Ores
Zinc ores contain harmful metals like lead and cadmium. These metals have a detrimental effect on the environment since they contaminate natural resources such as soil and water (Spector 50). When these metals find their way to water bodies and underground water, they are harmful to humans and animals.
All these resources used in the processing and production of pennies should be directed to other courses that are beneficial to human survival
Pennies are a waste of resources and bring harm to the environment its habitats. Doing away with pennies as a currency will save the nation millions of dollars (Spector 60). Conservation of the area will be critical; even though people suggest that eliminating pennies will suffocate charities and the economy, it will be a smart move to stop pennies circulation.
Picchi, A. "Americans Throw Away $62 Million in Coins Each Year." 2016, P. 1-6.
Spector, Daniel. In Pennies We Trust: But Should We? North-eastern University, Vol. 1, 2019, p. 43-66.
Dispose of the Pennies
A. The penny was the first currency of any type to be authorized by the government of U.S. Ever since then hundreds of billions of pennies have been made and designed differently. Abraham Lincoln, the first U.S president adorned a coin as the first president (Spector 45).
B. Pennies are becoming worthless and making a single penny is costly more than the value it holds. The lack of use of pennies practically has led to them being thrown away. Despite the impractical usage of pennies, the U.S mint still makes them in large amounts every year.
C. Many countries have already gotten rid of the one-cent and other coins of low value entirely due to the fact that they are more concerned of the environmental effects cause by the mining of the minerals used in making these coins. Today, coins are being used as objects for ornaments and with the way their value has dropped, they should therefore be eliminated (Prescott 7).
II. There exist several controversies as to why pennies should be eliminated. They are becoming worthless. The reasons for getting rid of pennies are both practical and financial.
a. Pennies have dropped adequately in value.
i. Their worth is so little and they are becoming obsolete. In the 1980s, penny had some value but today there’s almost nothing that can be bought by a penny.
ii. Pennies have become difficult to spend that people barely bother about them. Their purchasing power is too low.
b. Pennies are costly to the government.
i. It is costly to taxpayers to produce that the worth it actually brings. Whenever the U.S Mint is producing a penny, money is being lost on the deal.
ii. The labor and cost of distribution of pennies is expensive and since consumers often discard or lose them, the Mint always produces excess of them which is costing more of the taxpayer’s money while it is the least valuable form of currency.
c. The utility of pennies is limited.
i. Vending machines and toll booths do not accept pennies. Moreover, transactions with cash are fast and does not have to deal with coins that are of low value (Prescott 7).
d. They have hazardous effects on the environment.
i. Pennies are made from earth mines. Toxic pollution is caused through copper and zinc mining.
ii. Approximately 110 million pounds of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere. These effects are undesirable especially while considering that the pennies being produced have extremely low utility.
III. Even though pennies are considered worthless and useless in this era, there are still substantial arguments that favor preservation of pennies and as per old superstition, finding a penny along a side walk is considered good luck. There exist practical reasons why pennies should not be disposed of.
a. Preservation of pennies is economical in maintaining the prices low and eliminating pennies means that rounding off of all transactions and manipulation of prices by stores whereby transactions will be rounded up and not down as always.
b. Charity donations depend on pennies. The fact that they have a little value makes it advantageous to charities since many people are happy to donate them.
c. Pennies are a way to honor Lincoln. He is the most revered president of U.S and that his image is bearded on the coin. Eliminating the coin will mean disrespect to his memory (Spector 45).
a. In circulation, coins have become scarce since they are being used by few people. The argument on whether to get rid of pennies is growing stronger every decade.
b. With the existence of the several reasons to ditch the pennies, it is evidently clear that they will be eliminated hence, stopping their circulation.
Prescott, Brian, and Oz Shy. "The Burden of Cash and the Penny Policy Debate." Available at SSRN 3822693 (2021), p.4-9.
Spector, Daniel. In Pennies We Trust: But Should We?. Northeastern University, 2019, p.44-46.
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