Ethics of Vaccines
Topic is : the ethics of vaccines. I have included the text not for citations but so you can tie in elements of the course.
Must comply with APA format (APA format is demonstrated at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/ )
Must include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.
Must include, in the body of the paper, sufficient academic concepts (three to four) prompted by the course facilitator, assignments, and other requirements. Each concept must be addressed in the following way:
Reference an academic concept gleaned from classroom or reading experience during the course of this class. Be sure to cite properly using APA. When researching, be sure to employ peer reviewed ACADEMIC research sources and sound research practices to support your answers.
Provide a context of experience where the learner saw this academic concept in operation.
Re-address the concept and the experience with critical thought. (That is, how does this learner respond to the content, positively or negatively, and defend that position).
The conclusion must readdress the thesis and provide a conclusion that considers paper content/evidence.
The final page(s) must be a References Page consistent with APA guidelines.
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Ethics of Vaccines
Vaccination prevent infectious diseases. The main aim of vaccination is to induce protection against a pathogen by mimicking its natural interaction with the immune system (Jecker et al., 2021). Vaccines are considered vital as they reduce the risk of complications and the mortality that follows exposure to an infectious agent (Key Ethical Issues Related to Vaccinations, 2013). Immunization programs are usually ethically defensive, and society usually has a vital role in providing vaccination against measles and safeguarding herd immunity by optimizing the capabilities of every individual.
The preventive actions typically interfere with the kind of individuals who put consideration of themselves healthy, and the health strategies are public usually are distinct from the advice in a consultation which is from a clinic needs a requirement of the benefits and the side effects of an intervention (Krantz et al., 2004). Therefore, the individual autonomy principle is considered a fundamental value in bioethics, which often carries the discussions that cover the ethical issues in the health interventions, which are public to be difficult and non-productive in consideration of the practical kind of solutions.
Vaccines are responsible for many public health successes of the public worldwide. Vaccines eradicated smallpox and reducing other infections like polio and measles (Micah, 2021). However, vaccinations have been considered the subject of ethical controversies. In contrast, many issues arise about the concept of ethics and its relationship with vaccines.
The ethical debates have a relationship with the regulation, the development, as well as the use of vaccines. They include various factors such as; the mandate, the testing and researching the disparities which can be accessed, and the consent that is informed (mike, 2021).In America, the state’s policies usually put a mandate on concepts of immunization, which includes the entry requirements of the school that cover a specific number of the children. The first requirements needed for the vaccination of the first school were enacted in the year 1850 to prevent smallpox.
The efforts of the federals and the state to eradicate measles back then in the 1960s and 1970s ended up motivating many modern mandate policies (The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2018). By the time it was 1990, all the fifty states had required vaccination coverage for the school children who were older in daycare centers and the Head Start type of programs(peter, 2019). The vaccines are customarily licensed and are usually added to the immunization schedule after undergoing research, monitoring, and testing, which has undergone coordination and review by the National Vaccine Program and other committees such as the Advisory Committee on the Practices of Immunization. Finally, states give out the mandate after following the entire process.
The ethical type of debates and objections concerning the vaccines do arise because of the disagreement of some people and communities with the mandates or the religious and the philosophical beliefs that make a conflict with the vaccination process (Williamson, 2021). A good example that can be considered is protecting the highest number of people; public health vaccinations may infringe individual autonomy and liberty (Molyneux, 2017). Furthermore, tension results when the individuals are looking for ways of exercising their rights of protecting themselves and refusing vaccination in a situation where their different ideological views don’t support vaccination.
In other circumstances, the controversies in the vaccine mandate usually include multiple and interrelated ethical dilemmas. An example of this case is the human papillomavirus which is sexually transmitted (Yeo-Teh& Tang, 2020). The FDA usually makes the approval vaccine the HPV in the year 2006. Immediately, the ACIP recommended the three doses of the vaccine for girls aged 11-12 years, and several state legislatures attempted to mandate the vaccination (Kowalik, 2021). There has been a rise in the ethical kind of objections about this type of mandate that includes the concerns based on the religion that a vaccine is protective against contradicts. STD abstinence-based messages fears that the vaccine could force a child to undergo an intervention that is misaligned with the beliefs of the family and human rights. It questions about the fairness that exists in making a provision of a vaccine to one type of sex only(Rus &Groselj, 2021). In recent times in the United States of America, the vaccine has been recommended for adolescents.
The fifty states in the United States of America typically allow the exemptions of the medical indications in addressing the personal beliefs and the varied concerns concerning the vaccination (Jecker et al., 2021). Among the states, 48 usually do follow the exemptions of the religion while the other twenty do allow it due to philosophical kind of reasoning (University, 2011). According to the research studies which have been conducted, it is clear that the ordinarily, religious individuals are at a higher risk of contracting infections which places them at very high risk; hence the medical and the advocates for the public health struggle to come up with a balance between the ethics of individual protection and the health of the community.
Ethics is also inclusive in researching and testing vaccines (Hopkins, 2021). There are ethical discussions surrounding the testing and research of the vaccines, including the discussions concerning the development of the vaccines and the development of the vaccine, the study design, population, and the trial’s location. For vaccines to be formerly licensed, they usually undergo many years of research and must pass the safety and efficacy standards (Hendrix et al., 2016). The development of the vaccine and the research process include experts who are diverse in the scientific and social disciplines, including public health, statistics, epidemiology, and the factor of immunology. The stakeholders might have priorities and motives that conflict, contributing to several ethical discussions.
Other times the researchers typically have a conflict regarding who is fit to be included in the trials of the vaccines. To test the effectiveness of a vaccine, a clinical type of trial inclusive of a control group that does not get the vaccine test is typically included. Failure to provide enough options for prevention can be a tough decision in a case where the vaccine given can avoid a severe and untreatable type of infection (Gustafson & Woodworth, 2014). A good example is a case where the TB vaccine researchers have struggled to devise ethical control group procedures. The existing vaccines for tuberculosis, known as the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, are considered not consistently effective and the best option in preventing TB. Other researchers argue that it can end up causing infection in people who have an immune system that is somehow compromised; a good example is the people who live with HIV& AIDS. The moment they test for the effectiveness of the new strategies, in particular, the researcher argues if it is correct and safe to issue the participants with the vaccines.
According to Global Health Foundation (2018), It is essential to comprehend and understand the vaccine’s safety and efficacy in different populations. Testing the vaccine amongst the population consisting of vulnerable people like children raises several ethical concerns (Gustafson & Woodworth, 2014).
Researchers need to balance the need for children’s safety and protection compared to effectively understanding how a vaccine will function and keep the children safe if it is administered (Esther, 2017). Aside from this, it is also essential to understand the various ways in which vaccines commonly affect|| the people who are living in third-world countries in order to carry out vaccine research in the countries that are still developing. It will need a list of the ethical concerns, such as providing necessary screening or the treatment necessary in case the diseases is detected. (Hendrix et al., 2016) The ethical concerns will need a practitioner or a doctor to address the factor concerning the way is effective in involving the local communities. The design of researching on a vaccine process should face the method of ensuring the trial as well as the vaccine can undergo supervision by the review panels which are local and ethical as well as making sure that the participants of the research design have understood the consent.
Ethical discussions are considered the key components of HIV vaccine research and its development (Kowalik, 2021). This is because HIV vaccines usually pose several moral kinds of challenges. A good example is that the stigma of AIDS may put the vaccine trial participants at a mental risk if they counter the issues of discrimination. In addition, the researchers usually try to figure out how to provide adequate and appropriate types of medical care and the protection from the stigmatization of the participants who realize that their HIV positive after the test (Krantz et al., 2004). Aside from this, the researchers have to consider that when participants get the trial the wrong way, they may put themselves at risk of thinking that they are protected majorly
The discussion of ethics also surrounds the vaccines’ implementation and delivery, such from the virus. The complexity of these issues usually leads to ethics analysis in HIV vaccine research. as those involving the concerned consent. The guidelines of the federal usually do not require any support that is written before vaccination in several procedures like the surgeries through the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of the year 1986 makes the requirement that the doctors give the recipients of the vaccine a Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) (Krantz et al., 2004). The (VIS) usually provides basic information concerning the risks of the vaccines and the benefits, which have been incorporated to be an information provider when a patient or a guardian needs to come up with a well-informed decision.
In accordance to Global Health Foundation (2018), many debates on ethics and vaccines typically revolve around the evidence that access to the vaccination depends on the extent of the socioeconomic status and the racial and ethnic group, which is the minority. Implicit in such a discussion is whether all lives are considered equal and deserving of the comparable opportunities that need to be protected by vaccination (Micah, 2021). Shortages in vaccines had hit the media, such as in the year 2004 when the flu vaccine shortage took over the attention of the Nation Media. This is due to the results lack of producers and suppliers of the vaccine. Several factors will act as a limitation of the research of the vaccine and its development, particularly inclusive of the expense. Therefore, this demand is decreased as well as the liability (Jecker et al., 2021).
A clear example is the flu vaccine, the demand varies yearly, and the producers must drop extra vaccines annually. From an ethical kind of perspective, the increase of the vaccine producers would end up positively influencing the health. There are many ethical controversies in the significant issue of vaccines as well as vaccination is considered the most prosperous measure of public health.
Esther. (2017). COVID-19 and mandatory vaccination: Ethical considerations and caveats Policy brief April 13, 2021 Background.https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1342697/retrieve
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Gustafson, D. L., & Woodworth, C. F. (2014). Methodological and ethical issues in research using social media: a meta method of Human Papillomavirus vaccine studies. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-14-127
Hendrix, K. S., Sturm, L. A., Zimet, G. D., & Meslin, E. M. (2016). Ethics and Childhood Vaccination Policy in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 106(2), 273–278. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2015.302952
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mike. (2021). Why A Universal COVID-19 Vaccine Mandate Is Ethical Today. Forefront Group. https://doi.org/10.1377/forefront.20211029.682797
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