Week 4 Discussion: Option 1

Posted on: 10th May 2023


For the first discussion write 2 or 3 paragraph's and for the week 4 case study copy and paste the 5 questions and write a response for each question in one or two sentences.

Week 4 Discussion: Utilitarianism

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Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapters 7, 8


Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Initial Post Instructions

The principle of utility involves maximizing happiness as a desirable outcome of decisions. Although it does not get directly said, there is an inverse intention to minimize the undesirable outcome of disaster. Utilitarian decisions are directed toward outcomes—that is, the consequences of decisions.

We need to look at results. We first look at the actual results of an action. We judge if it was the best possible result. We can judge the actual results in comparison to other results that reasonably could be said to have been possible.

If we do not yet have the actual results of an action, we do not know if it is moral or not. We can talk hypothetically about what might happen, and then what that would show about the morality of an action. However, if we do not know what the action had as its consequences, we cannot yet say if it is moral or not.

Initial Post Instructions

For the initial post of this week's discussion respond to one of the following options, and label the beginning of your post indicating either Option 1, Option 2, or Option 3:

Option 1: You are a nurse on a floor with only elderly patients. Every day, each patient tells you about how much pain they are in and asks you to help them. They want you to inject them with something to end their lives. If the patients die, the beds on that floor would be freed up for other patients. The hospital is at 100 percent capacity. There is no other hospital for 30 miles. Other patients may be not receiving care due to a lack of free beds. What is the moral thing to do here? Why is that the moral thing to do? What would an utilitarian say is the moral thing to do? Why would they say that? Compare and contrast the utilitarian approach with that of an ethical egoist or social contact theorist

Reference: Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Education.

Week 4 Case Study: Tissue

Due Sunday by 11:59pm Points 15 Submitting a file upload

Week 4 Case Study: Tissue

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:


Weekly Concepts

Minimum of 1 scholarly source


Child with SkateboardSteven and Brenda had eagerly anticipated the birth of their first child, a boy named Garth. The first year was joyous and Garth grew normally with no apparent problems other than some trauma induced blistering of the skin.

By Garth's third birthday, Brenda noticed that his nails showed some deformities. She mentioned this to his pediatrician during his annual physical but since there were no other problems, the physician decided to just watch the condition and to keep a record of what Garth was doing.

At four, Garth exhibited thickening of the palms and soles of the feet and gradual loss of the eyebrow hair. His lovely thick eyelashes were also becoming sparse. By age five, hyperhidrosis over the nose and cheeks were observed.

Garth was referred to a dermatologist for follow up where he was determined to have a genetic mutation in the plakophilin gene resulting in a condition known as epidermolysis bullosa a form of ectodermal dysplasia.


Answer the following questions and save your responses in a Microsoft Word document. Provide a scholarly resource in APA format to support your answers.

1.Describe the five different layers of the skin.

2.Describe the four different cell junctions.

3.What is the purpose of the plakophilin gene?

4.How would mutations in the plakophilin gene disrupt cell to cell interactions?

5.How would mutation in the plakophilin gene lead to hyperhidrosis.

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Week 4 Discussion: Option 1

The moral thing to do would be to not follow the patients' wishes. When deciding what to do, consider what is right or wrong, not who is right and who is wrong.

I hold this belief because the statement "A nurse in an ordinary case cannot directly and intentionally kill her patients" means that according to a code of professional ethics like the Hippocratic Oath, it is unethical for a nurse or anyone else to deliberately end the life of a patient with medical expertise.

Based on the above scenario, a utilitarian may argue that it is okay to occasionally kill an old or sick person to free up beds. A utilitarian would argue that all actions are based on the consequences, and if killing an old or sick person allows us to gain the most happiness for others, then that action is appropriate (Rachels and Rachels, 1986). An ethical egoist or a social contact theorist might argue that murder is never okay. Ethical egoists believe in living for self, and it goes against their belief to promote concern for others and devalue one's self. Social contract theorists may argue that killing is wrong because we all agreed not to harm each other.

Week 4 Case Study

Question 1

The skin is a large organ of the body that covers the outside and protects us from injury by most chemicals. It comprises five different layers, in order from outer to inner: epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue, hypodermis, and fat. The epidermis and stratum corneum form the outermost horny layer (Zuo & Lu, 2017).

Question 2

Cell junctions are specialized zones of the plasma membrane that anchor the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton (microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) with intermediate and anchoring filaments. There are four major types of cell junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes, and hemidesmosomes.

Question 3

The plakophilin gene, which is found in both humans and mice, is a tumor suppressor gene. The plakophilin gene counteracts cancerous growth by creating proteins that check certain proteins (Klauke et al., 2017).

Question 4

Mutations in the plakophilin gene would prevent plakophilin from functioning as a protein scaffold, allowing the cadherins on neighboring cells to remain in monomers and not as essential homo- or heterodimers.

Question 5

A mutation in the plakophilin gene would lead to hyperhidrosis because the protein product of the pakophilin gene normally stabilizes cell junctions that regulate the permeability of epithelial cells.



Klauke, B., Gaertner-Rommel, A., Schulz, U., Kassner, A., Zu Knyphausen, E., Laser, T., & Milting, H. (2017). The high proportion of genetic cases in patients with advanced cardiomyopathy, including a novel homozygous Plakophilin 2-gene mutation. PloS one, 12(12), e0189489.

Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (1986). The elements of moral philosophy (p. 9). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Zuo, Y., & Lu, S. (2017). The dermis, acellular dermal matrix, and fibroblasts from different layers of pig skin exhibit different profibrotic characteristics: evidence from in vivo study. Oncotarget, 8(14), 23613.

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