Discipline-Based Literature Review
Discipline-Based Literature Review
For this discipline-based literature review, you will research peer-reviewed articles that were published within the last 10 years in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library on the following major perspectives of personality.
You will utilize your researched article to create your literature review. The review should be formatted with the headings and content designated below.
Assess the types of personality measurements and research designs used in in the peer-reviewed articles you researched. Briefly describe the main theoretical models represented within each of the perspectives of personality and explain the commonalities found across all five.
Examine the major theoretical approaches, research methods, and assessment instruments used in the five perspectives of personality. Evaluate and describe the current research in these perspectives using a minimum of one peer-reviewed article for each of the five required perspectives. Present a detailed critique of each of the perspectives by evaluating the standardization, reliability and validity, and cultural considerations present in the most common personality assessments used within each. Support your opinions about each model by substantiating them with scholarly research. Be sure to include the following:
The theoretical framework(s) for the selected models
The major contributors to those fields
The methods of inquiry and assessment usually associated with those models
An overview of the characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses of the models
Provide a summary of your evaluation addressing the current use and relevance of these perspectives in explaining personality citing research as appropriate.
Writing the Discipline Based Literature Review
Must be seven to ten double-spaced pages in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.
Must include a title page with the following:
Title of paper
Course name and number
Your instructor’s name
Must begin with an introduction that describes and the main theoretical models represented within each of the perspectives of personality.
Must address the topics of the paper with critical thought.
Must end with a conclusion that summarizes your evaluation addressing the current use and relevance of these perspectives in explaining personality.
Must use at least five peer-reviewed sources from the University of Arizona Global Campus Library.
Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.
Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.
Discipline-Based Literature Review
Psychology is comprised of five main areas, namely, psychodynamic, behavioral, trait, social, and humanistic theories. These five approaches in psychology cover different aspects of human behavior and make it easier to decide what reasons cause people to portray particular behaviors and what appropriate treatment is available for such conditions. Psychodynamics is primarily focused on individuals thought patterns and not their actions which originate from reasons that the individual is unaware of. Additionally, psychodynamics come from an area of the mind that one is unaware of unconscious about since it comprises things that we are completely oblivious about. In most cases, such actions start to make sense in someone’s life mostly after they have faced a tough time in their lives which makes them aware of the issue and this occurs later in the development of life. Moreover, during adulthood, people learn about many things that may have somehow caused a stunt in their growth and try to make changes that can help them right the wrongs. People spent the better part of their adult lives making discoveries about their lives and the things they should have approached differently, but they did not have the right knowledge. For example, when people are young, there are many things such as fears, dreams, wants, and wishes that they are unaware of that could cause their problems. The second approach is behavioral and it is determined by how an individual reacts to various environmental factors. On the other hand, traits refer to attributes that describe individuals and the kind of behaviors they portray, how they think, and the form of feelings they exhibit. Different words can describe a trait such as distrustful, trustful, introverted, and punctual. In psychology, the social aspect is comprised of cognitive processes and learning. It pays close attention to individuals' ability to master ways to pay closer attention to various issues by being more focused, memorize, and learn to watch how those around them conduct themselves and learn. Lastly, the humanistic approach depends on the feelings that an individual exhibits about their environment and their desire to engage in doing what is best for their environment. It is highly likely that there are individuals who are capable of influencing everyone and everything around them when they possess a positive humanistic approach to life. As a result, that can help make the life of such individuals more fulfilling. The different approaches mentioned are varied psychologically and are influenced by different personality styles. In the discussion part, an explanation of how the theories of these approaches were developed, those that participated in their creation, and ways that people are affected by them will be offered.
From the first development stages, individuals possess numerous experiences that help them determine the course of their actions and behavior. Usually, that happens to be part of the unconscious self that people are unaware of and do not have any logical explanation to offer about them. Psychodynamics emphasizes on repression and drives and ways that drives will eventually manifest regardless of repression. That has resulted in some critics dismissively considering this as the ‘hydraulic model’ of the human mind (Barnard & Flotman, 2020). After creating the psychodynamic theory, Sigmund Freud was not interested in using scientific methods as proof of his work; instead, his research was based on what caused people to experience the kind of thoughts they have and what triggers them to think in a particular way. Freud used hypnosis to treat his patients, which involved dipping into the unconscious and finding the unseen issues that could be causing mental problems.
Some of the tools that are commonly used to measure the psychodynamic approach in patients are the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory (Barnard & Flotman, 2020). The CPPS method was largely geared towards therapeutic practices where BSI was utilized in the diagnosis of mental issues and included any progress in the treatment. The involvement and dedication of the therapists are the greatest effects on the diagnosis and treatment in the psychodynamic theory. That means the more a therapist is focused on delivering the best out of their patients, the better the utilization of the psychodynamic approach. There are many ways that a therapist can be involved when treating a patient (Barnard & Flotman, 2020). For example, they may display unconditional and positive care for the client and cultivate honesty and sincerity when offering therapeutic services to people. In some situations, it is okay for the therapist to cry or get upset by the turn of events without faking their emotions as an assurance to the patient that they are committed to helping them and can relate to their circumstances.
People tend to behave according to the environments they were raised in, and the kind of actions an individual is likely to take reflect the things they have learned throughout their lives. For example, parents are inclined to punish their children for misbehaving to help them maximize their best behaviors. Also, a teacher may decide to punish a student when they fail to do their homework to ensure that they are more committed to their learning. This stimulus-response approach is used to help reduce bad behaviors and increase an individual’s likelihood of displaying improved conduct, making the theoretical goal of prediction and behavior control (Teresa Jadwiga Zbyrad, 2021). Moreover, observing people around you can positively impact their behavior. For example, in a situation where a student fails to do their homework, and they are denied the opportunity to interact with others as they engage in various fun activities, such a student would likely be more committed to their classwork in the future to ensure that they are not left out when others have a good time outside the classroom.
Additionally, children may play with various toys that mock their parents’ jobs, like cleaning and pretending to be a police officer. That is because children learn through observing and then replicating the kind of behavior that their parents portray. John B. Watson first coined the term behaviorism and introduced behaviorist principles into mainstream American psychology (Teresa Jadwiga Zbyrad, 2021). Theorists started utilizing the behaviorist approach to explain what caused a particular behavior in an individual, especially in situations when there was no possible way individual thoughts could be justified.
The Trait Perspective
People display all sorts of traits, things that offer a thorough definition of who they are and the most reliable characteristics. Some of the common traits are outgoing, loyalty, honesty, kindness, courage, and many more. Gordon Allport, Raymond Catell, and Hans J. Eysenck are regarded as the founding fathers of trait psychology. They advocated that traits constitute the personality structure and account for intra and inter-individual differences (Matthews, 2018). Moreover, personality traits are measurable and relatively independent of each other (Matthews, 2018). The Big Five Personality Model was intended to help people learn where individuals best fit in the environment and in terms of career positions. This model has remained to be an important tool considering that it is widely applicable in the world today. It is easy to establish someone’s behavior behaved on the traits they portray. For example, an outgoing person is likely to have many friends and very active in various social media platforms. On the other hand, an introverted person is less likely to have many friends or be active on social media, in community gatherings, or participate in various co-curricular activities. Usually, the world comprises people with varied traits, and when they are appropriately utilized, it is always possible to have success in what we do. For example, in an organizational setting, in some instances, different individuals are hired based on their traits. Those who are talkative are given a chance to work in sectors that demand a lot of interactions with clients. In contrast, other employees work in different sectors that do not include any customer interaction.
The Social Learning Theory
Social learning comprises a cognitive process of observing the behavior portrayed by people around us. B.F Skinner founded the social learning theory whereby he defined it as a model of the learning process and social behavior that emphasizes that it is possible to acquire some behaviors through observation and imitation (Tolle, 2017). That is why some individual’s behavior is shaped by news media such as TV shows, commercials, and video games among other social media platforms. For example, there are many commercials online that are intended to make the public see exercise and going to the gym as fun, and when people watch them, they may be encouraged to join a fitness club. Also, if a commercial encourages people to study a particular course because it is highly marketable, there would be individuals interested in going back to school and earning knowledge on that particular field of study.
Also, video games can be hard to master and rise the levels, but with time someone learns how to win the hard steps and masters the game. Moreover, social media influences such as seeing someone walking their dog and spending good time with family and relatives can trigger someone to embrace such behavior and see if they too can find joy in doing it (Tolle, 2017). TV shows with stories of happy endings can help promote healthy functioning among individuals in a relationship because they offer an optimistic view of life, triggering a positive behavior, whereas those that portray violence among partners may make someone fear marriage or dating due to fear of the unknown hence causing negative behavior.
A humanistic approach refers to how a particular individual is determined to lead a life that embraces positiveness and satisfaction. Several scholars founded the humanistic perspective, Rollo May being one of them defined the approach as a hierarchy of needs. Needs extend from deficiency needs such as safety and other psychological needs and being needs like love, self-esteem, and self-actualization (Vyzhva, 2020). An individual’s humanistic perspective can be measured by taking them through an extensive therapy or psychotherapy to understand how they feel about life and whether they are determined to unleash their potentials and make the best out of it or they only intend to do what is required to get things by. People who are motivated by their surroundings exhibit a high self-esteem, and their overall outlook is encouraging and makes them seem likely to live a more accomplished life. Humane acts are a portrayal of a humanistic approach whereby an individual is determined to get the best for themselves whole impacting the world in a more positive way (Vyzhva, 2020). For example, an individual who feels worthwhile is likely to be in their best behavior which makes them appear to have elevated spirits, thoughts, attitudes, and overall conduct. An excellent example of a humanistic approach is during a therapy season when individuals are assured that they have entirely normal thoughts and any noticeable flaws are unique and characteristic to themselves alone. That is a great way to encourage people to cultivate high self-esteem and ensure that they always function at their highest level possible.
Various approaches described here are a great way to determine what triggers various individual behaviors. There are very reliable theories coined by the founders of the perspectives mentioned above and assessments that help measure different models. The psychodynamic approach focuses on the unconscious part of human psychology by establishing how it is brought out. The behavior approach offers an understanding of relationships between people and their environment. Additionally, the social learning approach is focused on the cognitive process, and people learn from their environment and others. Lastly, the humanistic approach views how different individuals feel about their lives and their determination to make their lives better and live more fulfilling life. Every psychological approach gives hope that things will be fine, and there is hope that the world will become a better place to live.
Barnard, & Flotman, A.-P. (2020). Coping Dynamics of Consulting Psychology Doctoral Students Transitioning a Professional Role Identity: A Systems Psychodynamic Perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(15), 5492–. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155492
Matthews. (2018). Cognitive‐Adaptive Trait Theory: A Shift in Perspective on Personality. Journal of Personality, 86(1), 69–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12319
Teresa Jadwiga Zbyrad. (2021). Assisted Living Institutions as the Basis of Order and a Form of Behaviour Control From the Perspective of Erving Goffman’s Systems Theory. Studia Humanistyczne AGH (Kraków), 20(4), 61–78. https://doi.org/10.7494/human.2021.20.4.61
Tolle. (2017). Gang Affiliation as a Measure of Social Structure in Social Structure Social Learning Theory. Deviant Behavior, 38(8), 870–878. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1206712
Vyzhva. (2020). Contemporary Leadership Theories: Humanistic Perspective. Problems of Modern Psychology : Collection of Research Papers of Kamianets-Podilskyi National Ivan Ohiienko University, G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, 47, 9–26. https://doi.org/10.32626/2227-6246.2020-47.09-26
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