Enteric Bacteria

Posted on: 17th May 2023

Question

Guidelines and helpful hints for writing your assignment:

Topics that can be choose from:Just choose one to write about

Have the first page of article used screenshotted

Gram stain

- Differential stain

- Pathogenic cocci overview

- Selective and differential media

- Enteric bacteria

- Bacterial aerotolerance

Bacterial analysis of water

- Eukaryotic pathogens

· When you write your paper, you should write as if you’re explaining your topic to someone who knows NOTHING about microbiology. Accordingly, when you use technical terms, you also need to explain exactly what they mean. I highly recommend asking someone else to read your paper!

· You need to reference 2 peer-reviewed papers AND 2 general sources for your paper. You may use MORE than 2 peer-reviewed journal articles or more than 2 general sources if you choose. Just include them in your reference list, and with your hard-copy materials.

· Remember that quoting from your references is not allowed for this assignment. If you chose to ignore this rule, 3 points will be deducted from your grade for every quote.

· Plagiarism of ANY sort will result in a zero for the assignment. I highly recommend that you CAREFULLY reread the plagiarism pamphlet at this time, to make sure you have not plagiarized in your paper.

· Remember that in addition to finding the resources, you must also USE them to write your paper. Please use footnotes, endnotes, or parenthetical documentation to indicate which information from your paper corresponds to which reference. If you choose not to, 10 points will automatically be deducted from your score.

· Remember to turn in TWO resources for peer reviewed article. 1st page of article

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Solution

 Enteric Bacteria

Bacteria that live in the intestines of humans and animals are known as enteric bacteria. Enteric bacteria can be benign, such as intestinal flora or microbiota, or pathogenic, meaning they can cause illness (Wallace, 2020). A considerable number of enteric bacteria are found in the intestines of all animals and humans. Enteric bacteria, often known as gut flora or human microbiota, are primarily innocuous and aid in maintaining a healthy digestive system. Enteric bacteria usually penetrate the body through the mouth, usually by ingesting contaminated food or water (Wallace, 2020). Direct contact with polluted water in swimming pools or lakes, infected surfaces, or excrement from animals or persons carrying the germs is another way the bacterium can be transmitted. When harmful bacteria enter the body, they multiply and infect the body. When a person becomes infected, their immune system attempts to eradicate the dangerous microorganisms.

On the other hand, certain enteric bacteria strains are pathogenic and can cause sickness in people. Some people's immune systems can fight off microorganisms once they've entered their bodies (Berger,2018). On the other hand, the immune system is unable to eliminate the infection in certain people, and disease results. However, if the immune system cannot eliminate the infections, tissues of the body can be destroyed, resulting in disease signs and symptoms (Berger, 2018). The clinical manifestations of a bacterial infection differ based on the type of microorganisms involved and the region where the infections occur.  Fever, body aches, vomiting, dysentery, and abdominal pain are some of the most frequent symptoms linked with enteric bacteria (Berger, 2018). These bacteria are widespread in animal intestines and contaminate animal products while manufacturing.

Unpasteurized milk and undercooked burgers or poultry are the two foods that pose the most danger. These diseases can be spread to humans by living animals. Young animals suffering from diarrhea pose the most significant risk. The person should physically ingest particles from the animal's excrement to become infected.

Examples of enteric Bacteria linked to the human disease include; Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli. Most Salmonellae are human pathogens. Salmonellae can cause illness in animals, but they're also carried by some very healthy animals (Pellegrini al,2018). In humans, Campylobacter jejuni is also a prevalent causative agent of diarrhea. Almost all birds and mammals can carry it. Escherichia coli is a typical intestine bacterium found in all mammals' environments. While most E. coli bacteria are benign, a few strains can cause illness (Pellegrini et al.,2018). Shigella is a tropical bacterium that is most commonly found in primates but rarely in other mammals. Although it is uncommon, Shigella is a prevalent cause of diarrhea in the tropics.

The following measures can be taken to avoid human infection with these agents: Cooking all meat entirely and not allowing cooked meat to remain on raw meat-contaminated surfaces. Unpasteurized milk and milk products should not be consumed when handling animals or placing anything in the mouth; thoroughly wash hands (Varet et al.,2018). Individuals affected with pathogenic bacteria receive treatment that differs depending on the bacteria causing the disease. Treatment may include hydration and antibiotic treatment, including prescription antibiotics (Varet et al.,2018). The type of bacterial infections, the location of the infection, and other individual-specific characteristics, such as the individual's age, allergies, medical histories, and medication information, are all aspects to consider when contemplating antimicrobial therapy. 

References

Berger, A. K., & Mainou, B. A. (2018). Interactions between enteric bacteria and eukaryotic viruses impact the outcome of infection. Viruses, 10(1), 19.

Pellegrini, C., Antonelli, L., Colucci, R., Blandizzi, C., & Formia, M. (2018). The interplay among gut microbiota, intestinal mucosal barrier and enteric neuro-immune system: a common path to neurodegenerative diseases? Acta neuropathological, 136(3), 345-361.

Varet, H., Shaulov, Y., Sismeiro, O., Trebicz-Geffen, M., Legendre, R., Coppée, J. Y., ... & Guillen, N. (2018). Enteric bacteria boost defenses against oxidative stress in Entamoeba histolytica. Scientific reports, 8(1), 1-12.

Wallace, M. J., Fishbein, S. R. S., & Dantas, G. (2020). Antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria: current state and next-generation solutions. Gut Microbes, 12(1), 1799654.

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