Major Learning Models
The purpose of this question is to demonstrate understanding of the three major learning models and how a theory associated with each could be used in a practical manner.
After being in a car accident, Adam is slamming on his brakes at inappropriate times which is putting him and others in danger.
1) How could Adam’s behavior be explained using the classical conditioning learning model? Be sure to clearly state the NS, US, UR, CS, and CR. Include at least one classical conditioning theory in your response that could be used in a treatment plan.
2) How could Adam’s behavior be explained using the operant learning model? Be sure to clearly state a possible reinforcer and punisher. Include at least one operant learning theory in your response that could be used in a treatment plan.
3) How could Adam’s behavior be explained the social observational learning model? Be sure to include a possible human model and how the elements of Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory could be used in a treatment plan.
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Major Learning Models
A person's conduct or behavior can be changed due to their experiences. Various ideas and models have been created to explain how learning occurs. Constant reinforcement speeds up the rate at which students learn new material. If new behaviors are learned through exposure to conditioned stimuli, as in traditional conditioning, this is the case; then opportunistic knowledge is incompatible. Generally, learning new behaviors is based on observing others. Using one of the three learning theories, one can develop a new strategy for dealing with a particular scenario. Due to a recent car accident, Adam has started taking his breaks at inconvenient times, putting himself and others in danger. To better understand how this case, this study aims to investigate the three essential models of learning and how these models might be used in practice. A driver's ability to drive after an accident is evaluated using one of the three models discussed above. As a result, the report offers advice to the driver based on the most likely course of treatment based on the various learning models.
1) How could Adam's behavior be explained using the classical conditioning learning model? Be sure to clearly state the NS, US, UR, CS, and CR. Include at least one classical conditioning theory in your response that could be used in a treatment plan.
Classical conditioning relies heavily on associating new actions with previously learned ones. A scientific vocabulary describes the responses and motivations received in classical conditioning. An unconditional response (UR) is elicited when an unconditioned stimulus (US) is provided to a being in the early stages of training. Adam, for example, was used to slamming on the brakes to regulate the speed of his car on the highway. Linking two previously unrelated stimuli can teach Adam a new reaction. Other than avoiding collisions with other vehicles and slowing down so that people might pass, this was a common practice. This unconditioned reaction becomes automatic and automated after a given amount of training with driving, such as slamming on the brakes. Depending on the conditions, this unconditioned sensation may be significantly altered by one's sense of road direction (Gutnisky & Zanutto, 2004). In addition to approaching another vehicle, other drivers' indicators and horns are examples of normal driving stimuli that are considered neutral.
In the first step of classical conditioning theory, another inspiration that does not affect an individual will be used in Adam's case, but this time, it will not affect his reaction nor add fear. The neutral stimulus responds exclusively to the unconditional. When a nonresponsive stimulus is linked to an unconditional inspiration, the conditioned stimulus takes precedence over the unlinked stimulation, according to Ervin et al. (2018). In other words, the use of these signs or other drivers' signals can be linked to slower speeds and will help Adam deal with his fears.
The other conditioning stage can elicit a fresh conditioned reaction (CR) when the unconditioned stimulus is connected to a neutral stimulus. Bump signs, which indicate an impending slowdown for the motorist, are recognized as evidence of safe driving practices. After the incidents, Adam's ability to make sound judgments about the road and the cues in his immediate area was compromised because of his fear and panic. His driving became more careful in the wake of this. Unconditional stimuli such as the bump ahead and the accident event experience will elicit Adam's initial unconditioned response (UR). Adam immediately applies the brakes to avoid repeating the accident incident.
The slamming of the brakes is now a conditioned response to road signs or drivers' indications, which were formerly neutral stimuli before the occurrence (CR). To put it another way, Adams' reactions to stimuli like traffic signs and other people's signals to slow down are influenced by his sentiments of fear. His sickness has made it more challenging to operate a vehicle safely because of frequent and abrupt breaks.
Before an unconditioned stimulus, there exists a neutral stimulus. Before being involved in an accident, Adam would rarely apply pressure on his brakes. A neutral stimulus (NS) does not generate a response from the affected, such as a tone. Because he had prior knowledge of applying breaks, Adam did not fear when driving. Stimuli that have no primary effect on the organism are known as unconditioned stimuli. The accident served as an unconditioned stimulus in this case. In other words, it was an unconditioned response (UCR), which means Adam's braking was a spontaneous response to a stimulus, which will reduce with time.
Adam began using his brakes too hard after he got into an accident. In psychology, conditioned response refers to the behavior that emerges as a direct result of exposure to previously learned stimuli (CR). When the neutral stimulus was often paired with an unconditioned stimulus, the resulting reaction eventually evolved into what is known today as the conditioned stimulus (CS).
An aversive unconditioned stimulus can be used to train fear conditioning. Even though the neutral stimulus initially does not affect emotions, repeated exposure to an unpleasant unconditional stimulus eventually turns it into a conditioned response that alerts individuals to the impending arrival of an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus and triggers the anxiety that goes along with anticipating the unpleasant unconditional stimulus (Oppong, 2014). Fear conditioning is self-preserving and adaptive when the conditional or unconditional stimulus contingency is eliminated; scared reactions to the stimulus endure.
Adam's fear of driving has resulted in him avoiding it at all costs due to encounters. According to O'Donnell et al. (2020), people with classical conditioning anxiety tend to generalize their training more than individuals who do not suffer from this condition. After seeing the horrendous events that occurred, many of these people are in danger of acquiring post-traumatic stress disorder. There is a chance Adam's one of these people. Adam may be dealing with anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder (Thrailkill et al., 2020). Adams can be treated using both pharmacological and therapeutic methods by these two requirements. Suppose Adam is suffering from anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. In that case, he may benefit from medication-assisted psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy to help him overcome his distorted memory of the event.
It is the practice of exposing an already-natural reaction to an innocuous stimulus before rewarding it with something more pleasant, such as a reward. A school of thought known as behaviorism has had a considerable impact on psychology even though a psychologist did not discover it. The idea of behaviorism states that all learning occurs due to people's interactions with their environment. Behavioralists attribute a wide range of events and circumstances to classical conditioning. A response is initiated by some of these qualities, while others are responsible for ending it. To fully comprehend the classical conditioning process, it is essential to explore these components. Using classical conditioning can help individuals overcome their fear of failure by creating an encouraging environment. Adam's ability to make new associations is aided by establishing connections between pleasant surroundings and stressful situations, such as performing in front of a group. Over time, an individual will learn to remain composed and unfazed in stressful situations.
2) How could Adam's behavior be explained using the operant learning model? Be sure to clearly state a possible reinforcer and punisher. Include at least one operant learning theory in your response that could be used in a treatment plan.
An individual's conduct is influenced by the results of their actions, which are based on the notion of operant behavior. Based on the work of Hilal et al. (2021), the concept of operant conditioning is defined as the study of an individual's ability to change their behavior through the use of an incentive system. The phrase refers to any method of rewarding someone for meeting specific criteria. Penalties and reinforcements are used to adjust the possibility that a response will be repeated in the future. As a result of the support, a behavior's intensity or frequency increases. Negative or positive feedback might be received at any time. When an individual's acts are recognized or encouraged, positive reinforcement happens; negative reinforcement occurs when an individual's actions are reprimanded or punished (Gao et al., 2013). On the other hand, punishment can be either positive or negative depending on how much it reduces the frequency or intensity of a behavior's reinforcement when it is applied.
In contrast to positive punishment, where the desired stimulus is removed, negative punishment removes a wanted motivation. Negative consequences as a form of punishment are known as positive punishment. According to this model, Adam's driving style puts him and the rest of the people driving on the road at risk. On the highway, a collision is possible since he looks to apply the brake rapidly. The previous experience catalyzes this course of action. If this situation continues, there will be more dangers for Adam and other road users.
Inappropriate behavior results from the person's fear of reliving the event's consequences. In response to Adam's difficulty, a punishment or reinforcement plan that aims to alleviate his fear while simultaneously restoring his faith in his reading skills would be an acceptable response. Depending on the severity of Adams' fear, he may need therapy to be able to drive safely. An effective means of motivating him to work hard on his recovery is the threat of losing his driver's license until he is ready to go safely again or placing restrictions on the kind of roads he is allowed to drive on while getting better.
Psychotherapy philosophy is the best foundation for combating this problem. According to Hilal et al. (2021), each behavior is taught using rules, associations, and observational data. They want to help clients change their behaviors by providing learning opportunities that can be applied to their problems when working together on them in the therapy room. Therapy sessions and assignments are structured because patients are expected to do tasks for themselves and their therapists. Therapeutic methods can be boosted by reinforcement and punishment. Complimenting Adam on his careful driving and little slamming of the brakes is another way to generate positive support for Adam. Adam's anxiety can be alleviated by exposing him to dreaded situations, practicing relaxation techniques, and recording his negative actions. To be successful, Adams must make these changes to his conduct.
Obedience that is rewarded will be more likely to be repeated. Hence operant conditioning is based on this simple principle. One is more likely to relate a funny story in the future if no one else laughs at it. While Skinner believed operant conditioning was more important, he argued that classical conditioning had some merit (Rua & Dai, 2010). After deciding that classical conditioning theory could not account for most of what people learned from their experiences, Skinner came up with this theory. Skinner's early experiments with operant activity were used in his research and eventually published. The invention of the operant conditioning chamber, often known as the Skinner box, is attributed to his hard work. By this theory, he believed that to provide the animal with a treat; they only had to press a key or bar on the keypad of a box.
One of Skinner's tools used to keep track of participant replies was the cumulative recorder. According to the answers, the slope of an uphill line was used to compute response rates, which were recorded as an upward movement of a line (Rua & Dai, 2010). An event or result that causes a subsequent decline in behavior is described as punishable when presented in two categories. In both of these situations, the defendants' conduct will have deteriorated.
3) How could Adam's behavior be explained the social observational learning model? Be sure to include a possible human model and how the elements of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory could be used in a treatment plan.
According to the theory of social observation learning, individuals gain knowledge through observing how they interact with others in a group context. A person is more likely to imitate and learn from other people's actions if they have had favorable observing experiences or if those experiences involve rewards linked with the observed conduct. Observed motor activity is reproduced in imitation of one another, according to the Bundara perspective. Individuals can pick up new skills and knowledge through watching or learning from the actions of others by this theory (Wang & Yu, 2017). The theory elements identify three general standards for learning from one another.
According to popular belief and recent evidence, social learning principles continue to work throughout a person's lifetime. Individuals can engage in observational learning at any point of their development, according to Ervin et al. (2018). A discovery. occurs when a modeling process uncovers new, dominant models that have an impact on resources at a new learning stage. According to the social learning theory, people learn from one another by imitating, modeling, and observing one another's behavior. Behaviorists believe that a long-term change in one's behavior is required to learn something. According to social learning theorists, nevertheless, the long-term nature of their behavior modification may obscure their learning, they argue. In Ervin et al. (2018), learning outcomes can affect the development of new attitudes and behaviors in the long term. People can learn to modify their habits and actions by observing themselves and others and exploring their inner selves.
Adams was taught to drive using a combination of observation, imitation, and modeling under the guidance of an instructor. As long as a person pays attention to the model or modeling, they participate in an attentional process that Bandura describes as having four stages. Long-term recollection of what they have observed is the second step of long-term retention. In the end, a person gets adept at responding to symbolically encoded memories. After that, a process known as transformation transforms the behavior model's symbolically stored memories into a new response pattern. For many years, Adam worked hard to perfect his driving skills before the accident, which made him have fear. If his long-term memory of driving had been affected by the crash, he might have made huge mistakes.
Following Bandura's social cognitive learning model, Adam's behavior should be corrected. When it comes to solving and explaining learning problems, Bandura defines learning theory as a collection of ideologies-based, systematic reasoning (Wang & Yu, 2017). Learning occurs due to this behavior change, resulting from the individual's desire to enhance their quality of life by meeting their goals. Their environment and their thoughts might influence a person's actions. Behavior can also be affected by Bandura's theory of cognition. It is feasible to make the case that Adam's intellect and environment were factors in his actions after the accident. An essential component of the therapeutic operation is reviving Adam's long-term memory for driving. The best way to do this is to retrain him and allow him to engage in physical activities. His driving habits may be affected badly as a result.
Albert Bandura, an American psychologist who was born in Canada but grew up in the United States, was one of the first people to recognize the concept of observational learning. Bandura's Social Learning Theory stresses the necessity of seeing, mimicking, and experiencing other people's thoughts and feelings. Humans are social beings, and as such, they are predisposed to learn through seeing and listening to others. Children mimic and learn from their parents' behavior. As early as three weeks old, babies begin to copy the facial expressions and lip motions of those around them (Ervin et al., 2018). One must put their focus on something other than themselves to learn. They must be aware of both the model and their actions to do their jobs effectively. Whether or not an observer's attention is drawn to a model based on its resemblance to their current emotional state is debatable. Developing a new habit requires more than simply paying attention. One must be able to recollect past behavior and the current state of affairs simultaneously when performing their role as observer. The observer should arrange the information to make it easy to recall to increase the likelihood that something will be remembered. Mnemonic devices can be used. Learning should become a part of one's everyday life.
A behavior must be easily remembered to complete the activity quickly and efficiently. The observer must be able to reproduce the behavior in the real world during the reproduction phase. It is not as simple as it appears at first glance. It is not uncommon for new habit formation to demand extensive practice sessions. If one gives an excellent presentation to the entire firm, they no longer have to copy it and then utilize the same techniques in their production a few minutes later (Ervin et al., 2018). It is a lifetime endeavor to develop and hone these skills. One of the essential skills one will learn is how to keep themselves motivated while they are studying. For observational learning to be effective, it requires a motivated observer, where motivation comes into play.
Depending on the learning theories employed, there are many different ways to learn. Imitate, model and practice may be necessary to achieve perfection. It is thought that after a certain period, a mix of unconditional and neutral stimuli can alter an individual's behavior. Reinforcement or punishment may be required to encourage the appropriate activity because behavior in operant learning is meant to be affected by its consequence. The use of rewards and punishments can influence a child's appropriate behavior. It is also called social observational learning, and it is an approach to education in which students gain knowledge by observing others in a group context. Using Adam's circumstance as a case study, each of the three ideas is applied to shed light on what went wrong and how to fix it moving forward.
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Gao, Y., Zhu, F., & Song, H. (2013). Evolutionary operant behavior learning model and its application to mobile robot obstacle avoidance. Journal of Computer Applications, 33(8), 2283-2288. https://doi.org/10.3724/sp.j.1087.2013.02283
Gutnisky, D. A., & Zanutto, B. S. (2004). Learning obstacle avoidance with an operant behavior model. Artificial Life, 10(1), 65-81. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454604322875913
Hilal, Y., Kevser, I., Emral, G., & Aylaz, R. (2021). The correlation between children's own health control and their health perceptions and behaviours, and the associated factors. Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences, 43, e52849. https://doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v43i1.52849
Oppong, S. (2014). Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration theory in social psychological research? Psychological Thought, 7(2), 111-123. https://doi.org/10.5964/psyct.v7i2.104
O'Donnell, A. W., Neumann, D. L., & Duffy, A. L. (2020). Associative learning processes in the formation of intergroup anxiety and avoidance in society. Psychological Reports, 124(6), 2587-2612. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294120965472
Rua, X., & Dai, L. (2010). Skinner-rat experiment based on autonomous operant conditioning automata. 2010 Sixth International Conference on Natural Computation. https://doi.org/10.1109/icnc.2010.5584702
Thrailkill, E. A., Todd, T. P., & Bouton, M. E. (2020). Effects of conditioned stimulus (CS) duration, intertrial interval, and I/T ratio on appetitive pavlovian conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 46(3), 243-255. https://doi.org/10.1037/xan0000241
Wang, Y., & Yu, C. (2017). Social interaction-based consumer decision-making model in social commerce: The role of word of mouth and observational learning. International Journal of Information Management, 37(3), 179-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.11.005
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