Personalized Learning

Posted on: 14th May 2023


Paper will be focused on relating how personalized learning is bridging the educational equality gap. Please make sure all sources are within last 5 years.

Research Paper Assignment Instructions

The Research Paper for this course will be based on the topic you chose in the beginning of the course concerning teaching and learning. Your paper must be 15–20 pages and written in formal current APA style (refer to the current APA Stye Guide)

The minimum number of resources for the paper is 10.  All resources must be from scholarly or peer-reviewed journals (usually found from databases such as ERIC, EBSCO Host, or Info Trac). Resources must be diverse in nature, including articles from scholarly journals, books, and professional websites. The research aspect must be your diligent work in ascertaining current, scholarly resources to support your writing about the topic/issue. At least ten of your resources must be 5 years old or newer.  If you use older resoures (particularly in the Historical Summary section), be sure that at least 10 in the overall paper are 5 years old or newer. You should not conduct original research for this assignment.

The required parts to include are as follows:

I.       Introduction
II.      Historical Summary (How did the issue develop and how has it been viewed in the past?)
III.     Current Issue described in the present culture of education
IV.    Strategies that are in place to address the issue
V.     Biblical integration (What does Scripture say about the issue?)
VI.    Conclusion

Sections I–IV are to be written using 3rd person and expository form. They must present fact and research supported by scholarly literature.

Section V must be supported by Scripture.

Be sure to view the grading rubric to ensure that you know all criteria and expectations for how your paper will be assessed.

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I.       Introduction

States worldwide have adopted innumerable initiatives in bridging the education gaps that exist in populations. The United Nations has also taken up the initiative to bridge the gap between female and male scholars in marginalized populations. In the past few decades, the MDGs committee put various initiatives in different states to bridge the gap. One of the elected strategies in minimizing the gap is the adoption of personalized learning. The concept dated back to 1970. Various scholars have attempted to define the concept. However, there is no widely accepted definition. The lack of a globally agreed definition can be attributed to the fast evolution of the term since its inception in 1970 (Walkington and Bernacki, 2020). Recent scholars have defined personalized learning as tutor-led coaching in which the tutors customize learning to fit their personal needs. The learning methodology has been adopted worldwide to elevate education.

            In past years, the use of a strong and personalized methodology to education has prevailed. The methodology was first adopted in America and expanded to other parts of the world. The methodology was designed based on continuous progression in academic excellence. Scholars' review on the personalized learning in the past decade has been highly positive as the method is individualized to meet the diverse needs of the various students in a diverse classroom. The methodology also reinforces the learners and tutors’ bond, which is a huge contributor to academic excellence; it involves continuous involvement of the learners and tutors and their guardians, who are also adopted into the learning system as copartners (Pane et al., 2017).

            The personalized learning approach was formed as a replacement for the traditionally adopted team instructional strategy. The newly adopted methodology aimed to create added time and additional provision of guidance where necessary. The model further dictated the careful evaluation of the work provided by the students to ensure that the method was indeed helping with their weaknesses. However, since its inception, the new learning strategy has faced lots of criticism from numerous critics. Whether adopting the new strategy will transform learning and incorporate digital trends driven by giant corporations such as Amazon has been an issue for most critics. Additionally, critics have argued that the methodology aims to replace tutors and create huge bulks of work for the new generation (Roberts-Mahoney et al., 2016).

As outlined by Roberts-Mahoney et al. (2016), personalized learning entails using software that matches learners' abilities. It can also entail using artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies to understand and group the learner's capabilities. However, the concept has been adopted and understood contrarily in different places. In some learning institutions, personalized learning has been implemented to provide more choice for the students to choose and dictate their study; however, the systems are adopted to develop the learners, emotionally and physically. However, despite the varying adoption in the systems and the different intentions, the independent curriculums and policy adopt the methodology to bridge the education equality gap. Therefore, this paper focuses on relating how personalized learning is bridging the educational equality gap.

II.      Historical Summary (How did the issue develop, and how has it been viewed in the past?)

In recent years, the term personalized learning has been referred to constantly. Many scholars attempt to define the term. However, there is no universally agreed definition as the concept has been adopted diversely in so many places globally. Despite the belief that the methodology emerged in the 20th century, personalized learning has been dated back to Rousseau. More records of the term have been dated in the reign of Aristotle tutored by Alexander. It believed the methodology rose to popularity in the 20th century, characterized by various education theorists such as "Maria Montessori." The methodology gained population in an era characterized by different scholars, theorists, and psychologists who were becoming more popular at the time (Zhang et al., 2020).

Personalized learning continues to gain popularity, especially as new technologies are being invented each day. Tech giants are heavily investing in the methodology, raising lots of heat for education scholars. The heavy investment in the methodology has raised many questions to the general public on whether the tech giants aim to replace educationists as the original pioneers. To understand the future of the methodology, scholars ought to fully understand the history and origin of the methodology. Personalization was first discussed in early 1860; however, the term's meaning has continually evolved with time. In the present day, the term personalization is taken to mean individualization or the process of individualizing something (McCarthy et al., 2020). The term first appeared in scholarly work in early 1746; in the present day, personalization has become the new norm, with the norm being sworn by in the western culture (McCarthy et al., 2020).

Personalized learning combines both individualization ideology and technology, which both expanded in the 20th century. The two ideologies have also been combined with capitalism to draw much deeper meaning. Dan Buckley is the first scholar to define personalized learning in a way acceptable in the 21st century. The method was invented as a mode to bridge the gap between the various generations. Scholars were tasked with inventing a methodology that would allow tutors to individualize tutoring for all learners in a diverse environment. It aimed to tutor students with similar ages and demographics but characterized by different learning outcomes. Before introducing the phrase "personalized learning," scholars used different terms to refer to similar practices, such as the "Pueblo plan." The plan involved learners being permitted to sit for different tasks in the education system instead of the traditional class (Pardo et al., 2018). The concept has since been referred to as the first instance of personalized learning.

Secondly, the "San Fransisco Normal School" methodology allowed students to move forward in a particular subject individually based on their memorization ability. This method allowed the learners to move a level up in one subject as they stayed back in another. For instance, a learner could be in first-grade language and fifth-grade mathematics. The methodology allowed the issuing of documentation that allowed students to practice the completed grade or subjects. More and more fascinating methodologies were invented, such as "EHA/IDEA, The Keller plan, John Dewey methodologies, " and others (Pardo et al., 2018). In 2005, Buckley devised the term personalized learning, outlining two distinctive branches: "personalization for the learners and personalization by the teacher." (Pardo et al., 2018) Since then, a couple of improvements have been made to the methodology, such as introducing improving an individual's students learning outcomes. The methodology involves daily assessments to gauge where the students stand in terms of academic outcomes. The day's results are then utilized to formulate the following day's tasks. The school of one is highly adopted in new york city and counts as one of the proper applications of technology in the application of personalized learning in the current decade (Bulger, 2016).

Personalized learning has become a huge part of the education culture, especially in the west. Different aspects of the methodology are integrated into the school's curriculum every day. Most schools are adopting the idea of a single student individualized study every day as the schools continue to raise money to realize the dream. To achieve the dream, different influencers have risen to the occasion. Politicians and policymakers have joined hands with the government encouraging the adoption of personalized learning in schools (McCarthy et al., 2020). Policies are being devised to wheel the adoption of technology in the classrooms.

As shown by the history literature review, personalized learning is no new and will continue to transform education for learners, bridging education equity. The methodology has provided a way for education news to make education more individualized. Students can now personalize their education paths, and teachers can personalize the learning course for the various learners (Bingham et al., 2018).

Prevalent covid-19 pandemic has played a huge role in the assimilation of personalized learning into the curriculum. Covid-19 led to the closure of face-to-face studies globally, and schools were forced to adapt to online learning, which hugely promotes personalized learning as tutors dictate the course of study for individual students over digital media. In most of the online curriculums adopted, the tutors outline the course of the study as the learners closely follow through the classes at their pace. Further, the tutors offer directions to the learners as they closely follow their improvements with additional activities in the curriculum, such as random and continuous tests. Additionally, tutors provide additional team learning to provide additional data (McCarthy et al., 2020).

III.     Current Issue described in the present culture of education

Often, the issues facing education systems are underrated and uncovered in the news. In most cases, TV channels prioritize politics while paying little attention to the vital issues in education. Such reporting brings about mixed feelings to different scholars as to the value of learning in the state.  Education culture can be defined as the backbone of education. This can include curriculums and policies that guide learning in a state. Different states adopt different educational cultures. Some include the answering of questions or sitting for written tests, among others. The various tutoring practices are further conveyed by setting the acceptable student's behavior, which varies from state to state. Some of this behavior includes having acceptable school attending time minimum for all students, wearing school uniforms for all students, among others (Hashim, 2018).  The various set education cultures wheel education in the state and promote tutors and learners relationships. 


Numerous issues affect the education culture worldwide. The diversity of education cultures adopt in the different parts of the world is an example of an issue that international students have to phase every day. Immigrant students are originating from a different community in which a distinctive educational culture has been adopted and have a distinctive setup idea of how learning is conducted from their individualized ideas of learning, and the various socialization strategies often encounter a disruption in their educational culture. Different cultures are also adopted in different education levels or countries; for example, there is a different culture adoption in middle school instead of a campus for a higher education learning facility.  A student going from one level to the other must adapt to the new institution's culture. Such understandings of education at different levels are the wide interpretation of education cultures as diverse populations adopt distinctive cultures (Hashim, 2018).

Education culture can be defined as the widely acceptable education system and entails the tutoring methodologies adopted and norms acceptable. Huge emphasis has been made on different methodologies such as the personalized learning in the different states to maximize student learning and bridge the gap in education equality. Adopting the right education culture enhances the students' learning outcomes, adding to the student's language abilities and enhancing rote studying as outlined by Hashim (2018). However, as outlined by (Bingham et al., 2018), most states are still far from achieving this goal. The education culture adopted currently is faced with numerous challenges such as the physical and mental well-being of the students, among others.

 The most prevalent obstacle scholars have found has been the adoption of technology in schools. Introducing technology in school has been an issue of debate since the invention of the internet in the 20th century. (Bingham et al., 2018) Argues that the millennial generations have already been exposed to the internet and are constantly exposed to digital media every day, and he should be reason enough for adopting technology in education systems worldwide. Proponents of technological adoptions in school argue that tablets have already been widely integrated into the students' lives and should be included in the classroom. According to Hashim (2018), lack of technological incorporation in learning would deny the students a huge part of their lives which should not be the case. However, critics of the adoption argue that not all students are technologically oriented. However, these arguments mixed reactions to the proponents who argue that it is a more reason to adopt technology in schools.

Technology has become a crucial part of every individual's life. Ensuring the training of a competent future generation requires adopting technology in all aspects of a student's life, from learning to taking tests. According to Hashim (2018), technology should be deeply sworn on the fabric of the education culture. However, such innovations and progress would lay havoc in the students' lives as technology also brings about huge challenges and threats in an individual's life. Critics of the adoption of technology outline the various challenges technology would introduce to the student's lives, such as the amounts required for adoption in classrooms, the disruptions the gadgets would bring to the education culture, and misalignment with the existing culture others.


Problems of implementing technology in learning

High implementation cost

Implementation of computers into the curriculum is a huge financial investment. Even though technological advancements led to the adoption of new gadgets after a short while for most users, implementing the same in schools would be rather expensive for the learners. The full incorporation of technology into the school curriculum is a financially draining activity, as purchasing the necessary hardware would be only a step in digital learning. Incorporating technology would further require continuous assessment and guidance for teachers and students alike. Additionally, such a change in curriculum requires tutors' training and the design of the curriculum, which would be expensive (Hashim, 2018).

Disruption in the learning culture

As outlined by Hashim (2018), technological advancements can create difficulties in everyday activities. The introduction of technology and digital media in learning will introduce unnecessary complexity in the learning culture. Digitalization has resulted in the complication of all aspects of the community's lives, from communication to socialization, among other aspects. Hashim (2018) outlined that introducing technology will lead to the destruction of the current education culture in every way, from learners' socialization to teacher-student relations, among other important aspects of the learning process. Critics of digitalized learning state that E-learning will deem the learners with the necessary social skills and exposure important to earn social skills. Additionally, the lack of one-on-one classes is a major issue as it can lead to the students taking the studies for a joke.



Lack of efficiency

Computers are often reported as difficult to use and navigate for first-time users. There is also a lack of outlined measures to measure the effectiveness of computers, and hence it would be difficult to gauge whether a certain technology is effective or not in its intended purpose. The difficulty in gauging effectiveness adds to the issues affecting the adoption of technology in the education culture in education systems globally (Hashim, 2018).

Misalignment between education systems and technology

Information from the internet could result in cheating and lead to education losing its value. There have been numerous debates around adopting standard calculators worldwide, which does not offer additional data to the students, hence promoting cheating. The issue of the amount of technology that is accepted in the curriculum has been bothering many school heads worldwide. For example, the acceptable calculators in the curriculum are still a major concern for most school heads as digital calculators that solve the problems are considered cheating (Hashim, 2018). Such views are similar to the assimilation of computers in the classrooms, as most of the apps offer fully accessible answers to the students, which should not be the case

Corrupts the meaning of education

As outlined in a New York Times magazine survey, the adoption of technology would lead to the corruption of the meaning of school. The survey refers to a school in the Kyrene district in New York, which is reported to have spent more than $34 million in the adoption of technology (Hashim, 2018). Learners use laptops and tablets in their assignments and use social media apps such as WhatsApp for group discussions. According to the survey, students performed poorly on the state's standardized tests compared to their counterparts who attended traditional classes. This has drawn the attention of the stakeholders and the teachers who observed that the students still miss out on the relevant basic concepts even though the adopted technology boosts creativity. Proponents claim that standardized tests must have lost their value and cannot be adapted to the evaluation of new technologies.

IV.    Strategies that are in place to address the issue

Various strategies are in place to address the difficulties and integrating digital media into the classroom. To address the mismatch between the students' traditional learning systems and the digital classroom, school systems accept the fact that the traditional classes suit the needs of the millennial generation. Therefore, the curriculums that are being adopted are shifting the focus from memorization learning to a more individualized approach that will cater to the student's individual needs. The newly adopted approaches are more advantageous as they are interactive and promote a friendly atmosphere that promotes the teachers' formation of students’ bonds (Hashim, 2018).

States are adopting this methodology, which is geared toward classroom digitalization. This enables the teachers to personalize students learning outcomes. The adoption of technology has led to transformation of the "one size fits all" curriculum in teaching. The system approach has led to adopting a system that caters to all learners' interests and capabilities. As shown in a research study conducted by Hashim (2018), the utilization of technology has increased the student's scores by 25% in schools where the system has been carefully adopted (Hashim, 2018). The tutors use social media platforms such as WhatsApp and videos to issue instructions to the students.

Since its inception, huge progress has been seen, which can be attributed to the fact that the students can use exciting and interactive platforms to form video assignments, among options. Tutors have also taken advantage of animations, where students are required to design animated videos to gauge their understanding of topics. Additionally, students can provide feedback to their tutors using technologically mediated sites such as school websites to offer feedback and gain additional information from their tutors.

The invention of online grading systems

Schools are adopting online grading systems to ensure the slow but steady implementation of technology in education. The adoption of technology-mediated software such as PowerSchool is continually streamlining the communication systems in the schools. Such systems continuously engage the teachers and the stakeholders in the learning systems as this allows the tutors to upload students' scores, record the students' attendance, and generate the students' results, which are easily accessed by the parents and the stakeholders (Xie et al., 2019).

Adoption of online homework assignment platforms

The invention of homework platforms such as Blackboard has slowly allowed school systems to integrate technology into the learning systems. Blackboard has made it easy for the students to access their homework easily and upload work online, making the traditional classes livelier and more responsive. It has also ordered and streamlined class operations (Xie et al., 2019).

Learners’ tablets and laptops

To enhance tech adoption, schools have adopted the use of tablets and laptops in classes. This practice has helped the slow but steady digitalization of classrooms. In addition, the use of tablets allows learners to gain more insights from their tutors and enhance interactiveness, resulting in blended, personalized learning (Xie et al., 2019).




To curb the issues imposed by the current issues in the education culture, numerous schools have adopted a listserv, allowing parents/guardians to receive emails from the schools. Information shared can include the student's academic performances and newsletters, among others.

Technologic adoption in classrooms has encountered lots of criticism; however, the adoption of digital media in learning through numerous initiatives has proven effective over time. The adoption of personalized learning has proven that the adoption of technology has huge benefits to the learners. Regardless the handles technologic use introduces to the students lives are immense and cannot be assumed. Xie et al. (2019) argue that if the proper technology is adopted with different follow-up measures to monitor its use, it can be efficient, with the advantages outweighing the disadvantages. Some of the pros of utilizing technology in the classroom include;

Engaging learners

For proper learning in any institution, the learners must always be engaged. Since technology and digital media are interactive, technology is a good tool to keep the students occupied (Bingham et al., 2018).

Enables retention

Technology advances have led to various learning modes, such as animated videos that help students recall information. Additionally, technology has led to the adoption of education cultures and methodologies, such as the personalized learning, which allows tutors to structure individualized learning plans to cater to the diverse student's needs. Personalized learning creates room for learners to study at their own pace. Adopting technology has led to the diversification of the education culture where new cultures are continuously being adopted tailored to fit individual needs instead of the one size fits all approach (Xie et al., 2019).

Equip students with necessary life skills

All aspects of community life have been reformed, including socializing and meeting new people in the professional world. For example, in any given office, it is common to see employees use one of the Microsoft office tools such as Word or Excel spreadsheets. In addition, there are huge adoptions of personalized web pages in more advanced workplaces to streamline communication through sending and receiving emails, among other communication in the workplace. Allowing students to interact with digital media at a young age will equip them with the necessary skills relevant for after-school life.


V.     Biblical integration (What does Scripture say about the issue?)

Personalized learning is understood in contrast to single-student classes. Looking at the approach from a biblical lens, all individuals are equal in the eyes of the Lord. As outlined in the biblical scriptures in Timothy's book, God aims to bring to light all persons and gain more insights into the truth. Every human being is also created uniquely in the image of God. The uniqueness is evident in people's physical appearances. However, these are not the only distinctive features in people. Acknowledging the difference in people as outlined by the scriptures allows scholars to form personalized experiences that suit the uniqueness of all learners in the class as all students are prepared for different vocations independently, even though the vocations are not clear at the moment (Bull, 2016).

As tutors conduct personalized learning, they gain more insights into the uniqueness of every learner's strengths. It is easy to interact with one student than a group of students collectively. A harsh word can be interpreted otherwise by different scholars. This is similar to Christ's teachings, where numerous listeners received the gospel but interpreted it differently. In his gospel, Jesus also spoke to listeners independently and taught unique lessons to his followers. This is evident from the numerous encounters with different persons such as the bleeding woman, Lazarus, and Zacchaeus. In each of these encounters, Jesus gave different teachings to his followers. This is similar to classroom lessons. Adoption of a one-size-fits-all approach may not be practical for diverse learners (Bull, 2016).

In Christ's teachings, He also applied team teachings in cases where He gave universal teachings to His followers. For example, Christ's message in the Sermon on the Mount was not personalized or dictated to a certain population. Another instance includes the teaching of the Lord's prayer, where Christ taught Christians how to pray. Scholars can draw the message that not all teachings are personalized or should be personalized (Bull, 2016). The Bible illustrates this fact clearly through various examples, such as the commandments. There is no set of personalized commandments for an individual. The is also one Bible that is universal for all believers. This illustrates a moment for everything as outlined in Ecclesiastes, as Christ's teachings show that there is time for personalization and team learning. Therefore, Christian educators should consider when to apply team teachings, and personalized learning effectively bridges the education equality gap.

Keeping these examples in mind, personalized learning is well integrated into biblical teachings. Students in the 21st century are more diverse as compared to the past times. Adoption of a single learning method may not suit the needs of the individual students available. Individualized learning follows the teachings of Christ and also biblical scriptures in outlining that the diverse population has different needs (Bull, 2016). Theological scholars recognize the Bible as being versed in equipping human beings with sufficient skills for living a fully functional and satisfying life. It does not forego the issues of education and its significance in Christian life. As stated in the Scripture, God is all-knowing and has well-outlined laws that govern the way all things are done globally. The Bible is also educational as it provides Christians with insights into living a satisfying life. The scriptures further acknowledge wise men such as Solomon; Solomon’s story wisdom is God-given and comes from above.


VI.    Conclusion

The invention of technology and the digitalization of the education system has led to the innovation of new learning methodologies where education is tailored to suit the individual student's needs. This new methodology has gained popularity among tech giants such as Amazon and Netflix. Despite the criticism the approach has faced as critics say the methodology aims to replace teachers in the classrooms, the worldwide adoption of personalized learning will transform the education system, bridging the gap between education equality globally.

As outlined above, the methodology fits with biblical scriptures and follows Christ's teachings examples. However, the adoption of this methodology has proven to be expensive for the adopters as numerous training is required for the tutors to switch from the traditional education systems to the new system. Therefore, slow but steady adoption of the new system is recommended to benefit the new culture fully. Schools that haphazardly adopted the system have clearly outlined the cons of their actions, and hence proper measures should be put in place.





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Xie, H., Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Wang, C. C. (2019). Trends and development in technology-enhanced adaptive/personalized learning: A systematic review of journal publications from 2007 to 2017. Computers & Education140, 103599.

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